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97 terms

CMPTR Chapter 2

STUDY
PLAY
bit
the smallest unit of data that a binary computer can recognize
byte
eight bits grouped together
file
a named collection of bytes that represent virtually any type of data
system unit
the main case of a computer
circut board
a thin board containing computer chips and other electronical components
computer chip
a very small piece of silicon or other semi-conducting material that contains integrated circuits (ICs) and transistors
motherboard
the main circuit board inside the system unit
port
a connector on the exterior of the system unit case that is used to connect an external hardware device
central processing unit (CPU or processor)
the chip located on the motherboard of a computer that performs the processing for a computer
multi-core CPU
a CPU that contains the processing components or cores of multiple independent processsors in a single CPU
clock speed
a measurement of the number of instructions that a CPU can process per second
word
the amount of data (measured in bits or bytes) that a CPU can manipulate at one time
cache memory
a group of very fast memory circuitry located on or close to the CPU to speed up processing
memory
chips located insided the system unit used to store data and instructions while it is working with them
RAM (random access memory)
memory used to store data and instructions while the computer is running
register
high-speed memory built into the CPU
ROM (read-only memory)
nonvolitile chips on the motherboard that permenantly store data or programs
flash memory
nonvolitile memory chips that can be used for storage by the computer or the user
BIOS (basic input/output system)
the sequence of instructions the computer follows during the boot process
expansion slot
a location on the motherboard into which an expansion card is inserted to connect it to the motherboard
bus
an electronic path over which data travels
throughput (bandwidth)
the amount of data that can be transfered via the bus in a given time period
expansion bus
a bus on the motherboard used to connect peripheral devices
Universal Serial Bus (USB)
a versatile architecture widely used for connecting peripherals
FireWire (IEEE1394)
a high speed bus standard used to connect devices-- particular multimedia devices like digital video cameras-- to a computer
floating point unit (FPU)
the part of a CPU core that performs decimal arithmetic
control unit
the part of a CPU core that coordinates its operations
prefetch unit
the part of a CPU core that attempts to retrieve data and instructions before they are needed for processing in order to avoid delays
decode unit
the part of a CPU core that translates instructions into a form that can be processed by the ALU and FPU
bus interface unit
the section of a CPU core that allows the core to communicate with other CPU components
system clock
a small quartz crystal located on the motherboard that synchronizes the computer's operations
machine cycle
the series of steps performed by the computer when the CPU processes a single piece of microcode
storage medium
the hardware where data is actually stored
storage device
the hardware where a storage medium is read from or written to
hard drive
hardware used to store most programs and data on a computer
magnetic hard drive
a hard drive consisting of one or more metal magnetic disks permenantly sealed, with an access mechanism and read/write heads, inside its drive
track
a concentric ring on the surface of a hard disk where data is recorded
sector
a pie shaped section on the surfaceof a hard disk
cluster
the smallest storage area on a hard disk formed by one or more sectors
cylinder
the collection of tracks located in the same location on a set of hard disk surfaces
solid state drive (SSD or flash memory hard drive)
a hard drive that uses flash memory media
disk access time
the total time that it takes for a hard drive to read or write data
disk cache
memory used inconnection with a magnetic hard drive to improve system performance
hybrid hard drive
a combination flash memory/magnetic hard drive
optical disk
a storage medium in the shape of a thin circular disc made out of polycarbonate sustrate read from and written to using a laser beam
optical drive
a drive designed to read optical discs
flash memory card
a small rectangular flas memory medium
USB flash drive
flash memory media integrated into a self-contained unit that plugs into a USB port
remote storage
a storage device that is not connected directly to the user's computer
network attached storage (NAS)
a high performance storage server connected individually to a network to provide storage to computers
storage area network (SAN)
a network of hard drives or other storage devices tha provide storage for another network
online storage (cloud storage)
remote storage devices accessed via the internet
smart card
a credit card-sized piece of plastic that contains a chip and computer circuitry that can store data
storage server
a storage device containing multiple high-speed hard drives connected to the computer system or network
RAID (redundant array of independent disks)
a method of storing data on two or more hard drives that work together
magnetic tape
storage media consisting of plastic tape coated with a magnatized substance
input device
any peice of equipment that is used to enter data into a computer
keyboard
an input device containing keys used to enter characters on the screen
pointing device
an input device that moves an on-screen pointer used to select and manipulate objects and to issue commands to the computer
mouse
a common pointing device that the user slides along a flat surface to move the pointer on the screen
trackball
a pointing device similar to an upside-down mechanical mouse with the ball mechanism on top
stylus
a pen-like device used for input by writing, drawing, or tapping on the screen
touch screen
an input device that is touched with the finger to select commands or otherwise provide input to the computer
touch pad
a rectangular pad across which a fingertip or thumb slids or taps to control the pointer
scanner
an input device that reads printed text or captures an image of an object, and then transfers that data to a computer
dots per inch (dpi)
a measurement of resolution that indicates the qualitynof an image or output
barcode
machine-readable code that represents data as a set of bars
barcode reader
an input device that reads barcodes
radio frequency identification (RFID)
a technology that can store, read, and transmit data in RFID tags
RFID tag
a tiny chip and radio antenna attached to an object so it can be identified using RFID technology
RFID reader
a device that reads the data in the RFID tag
optical mark reader (OMR)
a device that inputs data from special forms to score or tally tha data on those forms
optical character recognition (OCR)
the ability of a computer to recognize scanned text characters
biometric reader
a device used to input bio metric data, such as an individual's fingerprint or voice
speech recognition system
heardware and software that enable a computer to recognize voice input
output device
a device that accepts processed data from the computer and presents the results to the user
display device
an output device that contains a viewing screen
monitor
a display device for a desktop computer
display screen
a display device built into a notebook computer, netbook, UMPC, or other device
CRT monitor
a display device that uses cathode-ray tube technology
flat panel display
a slim display device that uses electronically charged chemicals or gases to display images
liquid crystal display (LCD)
a type of flat panel display that uses charged liquid crystals to display images
LED (light emitting diod)
a common flat panel technology
organic light emmiting diod (OLED)
a type of flat panel display that uses emmissive material to display brighter and sharper images
interferometric modulator (IMOD) display
a flat panel display techm=nology that uses external light to display images
plasma display
a flat panel display technology that uses a layer of gas between two plates of glass instead of liquid crystals or organic material
pixel
the smallest colorable ares on a display device
surface-conduction electron-emitter display (SED)
a high definition display technology that is in development
data projector
a display device that projects computer output to a wall or projection screen
hard copy
a permenant copy of output on paper
pages per minute (ppm)
the typical measurement of print speed
multifunction device (MFD)
an output device that can copy, scan, fax, and print documents
laser printer
an output device that forms images with toner powder (essentially ink powder)
ink-jet printer
an output device that forms images by spraying tiny drops of liquid ink from one or more ink cartridges onto paper
barcode printer
a printer used to print barcodes
portable printer
a small lightweight printer that can be used on the go, such as with a notebook computer or a mobile device
3D printer
a printer that uses molten plastic during a series of passes to build a 3D version of the desired output