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Technological Determinism

the idea that machines and their development derive economic and cultural change.

Invention of Writing

Before oral/Pre-literature culture-local based. Memory was key: myth and history intertwined.

Ideogrammatic writing

picture based alphabets ex. chinese characters; cuneiform; hieroglyphics; required intelligence to read.

Syllable Alphabet

an alphabet employing sequences of vowels and consonants, that is, words. (aka that alphabet we use today. flourished in Greece.)

Invention of the Printing Press

Gutenberg; It brought uniformity, the ability to send books long distances, and a proper way to record memory. It expanded the audience of literacy to lower cases because it become cheaper to print. Also less control from the church so new ideas flourished.


the ability to effectively and efficiently comprehend and use written symbols.


the study of origins of words

Cultural definition of Communication

Communication is a symbolic process where by reality is produced, maintained, repaired, and transformed.

Third Person Effect

the common attitude that others are influenced by media messages but I am not. Basically we are literate to know the influence of media but not aware of it's influence on our own lives.

Encoded Messages

a message transformed into an understandable sign and symbol system. ex. speaking; writing; They are then carried by a medium. ex. BMW--> encoded msg: fast;luxurious; sporty;

Socially constructed shared meaning

learned behavior of a shared social group; we learn our culture via communication with friends and media;

Limiting and Liberating effects of Culture

culture limits our options and provides guidelines for behavior; ex. body image; can I burp after dinner? body image: limit bc makes you think bad about yourself; liberate: defy limits-->beyonce

Culture can divide and unite

divide us by stereotypes: yes I am American but I do not fit the American stereotype.


within large national culture there is a smaller social group. ex. Italian neighborhoods; down south . These smaller cultures unite people

Culture can divide via miscommunication

ex. Islam vs. West after 9/11 when Americans hated on muslim Americans just because they were biased after the attacks.

Industry in transition

Industry is in turmoil because of the economic downturn; movie attendance is flat, album sales down
However media consumption is at an all time high?

Major TV networks only possess only what percent of viewing audience?


Kids aged 8-18 spend how many hours a day with media content?

10 hours and 45 minutes a day

Ownership Concentration

fewer owners (media company) own more media companies (AOL-Time Warner)


the ownership of the media outlasts by larger, non media company. ex. GE owns MSNBC; Disney owns ABC


(market structure) a concentration of media industries into an ever smaller number of companies.

Concentrated Media

Time Warner, Viacom, News Corps (FOX) owned by Rupert Murdoch (Australia); Bertelsmann AG

Economies of Scale:

relative cost of an operations output declines as the size of the endeavor grows. EX the money it takes to make one show to send two 1, 2, or 100 outlets stays the same. They are opening more avenues for money to flow in via all the outlets.


the erosion of traditional distinctions among media


It is primarily large, multinational conglomerates that are doing the lions share of media acquisition.


the use of media by corporations as many channels of delivery as possible for similar control. A company can do well if they have a book, a magazine,tv, and more simultaneously.

Consequences of Ownership Concentration

-lack of diverse contents, not only in the us, but also globally.
-Use of "safe" content ( be sure to generate profit and avoid controversy)
-Price goes up (oligopoly)
-more commercially driven contents ($ deciders everything) ex 17 mins of commercial per hour
-increasing the amount of ad and mixing of commercial and noncommercial media contents.(product placement)

Brand Entertainment

brands are apart of and essential to the program, ex. Transformers__> camaro in plot line


give something for free then play on radio; bringing someone with money to use your product and show interest.

Dime Novels

In 1860 Irwin and Erastus Beadle began publishing these; by 1865 Beadle and co produced over 4 million volumes. also called pulp novels. Allowed for mass circulation of books and literacy go hand in hand increase.


Books are the oldest and simplest medium; Since books are free of advertising you can write many controversial things.

Books are agents of social and cultural change

Books are highly influential ex. Karl Marx; Thomas Paine, the Bible, Uncle Tom's cabin

Books are important cultural repository

books preserve knowledge

windows of the past

maintain history ex. The Great Gatsby

Important sources of personal development

Harry Potter series acted as a gateway to read other books. ex. resumes for dummies

Wonderful sources of personal reflection, entertainment, and escape.

harry potter, hunger games

Books are more individual

more personal then advertiser supported media ex. Magazines

Books are mirrors of culture

showcases of social climate of the time ex. Catcher in the Rye.

Historical Censorship

Nazi's-->Joseph Gobbels; Joseph McCarthy- removing "procommunist" 100 books

Modern day Banned books

Harry Potter, Huck Finn, To Kill A Mocking Bird, Of Mice Of Men, Goosebumps, The Color Purple, In the Night Kitchen Modern day parents of religious groups pressure schools and public libraries to take off shelves.


self censorship; where people posses the ability to read but not choose to

Reasons for Censorship

sexually explicit; offensive language; unsuited to age group; occult/satanism; violence;homosexuality;promotes religious view points; racist

Acquisitions Editor

people who find ideas-->find writers to write it.


assists author for quality of manuscript; ads, books, and send review copies.


book stores return unsold copies to publisher then sold as discount


platform for agnostic publishing; Print on demand (PoD) The content is stored digitally then printed and ship when ordered.

Digital Epistolary Novel (DEN)

books in different parts

Cottage Industry

publishing houses were small operations closely identified with their personnel. past;

Subsidiary Rights

a few giant publishers sell off characters to make money to film makers, foreign publishers, video games etc. because of this more bookstores are dwindling, fewer chains and small stores; buying books online is more popular.

Small pub houses on rise

"alternative" specialized in specific areas: environment, gay issues.

US Colonial News Papers

-bookseller/print shops broadsides, single shot announcements of events;
-Boston Postmaster published Boston News Letter (1704- the Revolution)
-In 1734 NY Weekly journal publisher criticized colony's royal governor and was jailed bc it was illegal seditious libel

After Independence

-1790 The Bill of Rights; First Amendment but Alien and Sedition Acts;

Modern News Papers

In 1833 NY Sun the first 1cent NP known as the penny press (also NY morning herald and NY Tribune) BEGINNING POINT OF AMERICAN MEDIA; used as advertising for $ instead of people buying it.

Why 1cent papers were good.

MP's became a mass informative medium (news, entertainment, and human interests) attached ads

Newspapers for African Americans

-Freedoms Journal- 1827 1st
-Chicago Defender - 1905 - most influential after civil war; 1st commercially successful

Correspondent System

NY Morning Herald pioneered the correspondent system by placing reporters in Washington DC, other major cities, and abroad.

Wire Services

origin in 1848; 6 NY Np's pooled efforts and shared expenses collecting news. New york Associated Press

Platform agnostic publishing

digital and hard copy books available for any and all reading devices.

The 5 Global News Services

-The Associated Press (AP; US) Bigggest
-United Press International (UPI; US)
-Reuters (UK)
-AFP (Agence France-Presse) France
-ITAR-TASS (Russia)

The Inverted Pyramid Style

allows each NP to cut stry according to its needs (space, importance to NP) with out chopping off key points.

Yellow Journalism

1883; J. Pulitzer bought NY World, adapted a populist approach. Sensational sex, crime, and disaster often exaggerated, giant headlines, illustrations, cartons, to gee rate $ "manufacturing and decorating news"

How many NPs in the world?

over 9,800


15% National Daily US- USA Daily





Circulation of NP's

130 million

Pass Along Readership

readers who didn't originally purchase the paper. Brings 104 million people a day in touch with daily (plus 200 million a week in touch with a weekly) good for advertisers.

Large Metropolitan dailies with zoned editions which attack more ads.

NYTimes; LA Times; Washington Post; Suburban and small town daily ex. Newsday LI

Ethnic Press

2 types; In english: Afro Am, Asian Am, etc
Non English: Hispanics and New immigrants
ex. Hoy, Al Dia, World Journal

Alternative and Dissident Press

typically liberal/progressive; more politics, critical coverage; satire and humor. ex. Eat the State!, The Onion

Commuter Papers

free np's for commuters. most popular are Boston Globe's Metro; AM New York

College Newspapers

there is no commercial interest behind college papers and allows for more true form of freedom of speech

what precent of Ad spending in US is spent on Newspapers?

16.5 %

What precent of space in NP's is given to Ads?


Why so Many ads?

1. They reach 5/10 Americans every day
2. Good demographics
3. NP's=local
4. Also NP is the most trusted-credible medium when making a purchase.

What is in the remaining 35%

there own stories however feature syndicates fill it up (cartoons, columns, essays)

Agenda Setting

They tell us "what to think" via
-article placement (page selections, top vs. bottom, etc)
-use photos
-use languages


obvious truth

Journalism is history

Journalism is the first rough draft of history- Phil Graham; People in the future will use the news articles of today to document history.

Elite readership Era

mid 1700's, mags were popular among elite brits; Andres Bradford and Benjamin Franklin duplicated that success in new world.

Early Magazines

1821 Saturday Evening Post, (148 yrs); 1850: Harpers; 1850: Atlantic Monthly

Mass Circulation Era 1870's

10-15 cents within reach of many working people; served for social change especially in the muckraking era (theodore Roosevelt) of the 1st decades of the 20th century.

The Era of Specialization

WW2 furthered urbanized and industrialized America. People had more leisure time and personal interests; the mags became more specialized and lifestyle orientated.

How many Magazines in 1950


How many mags today?

20,590, with 7,300 general interest mags. In 2009 195 new mags launched.

Magazines are Americas 1st national mass medium

railroad helped mass circulation of mags and to help develop national brands


1. Trains transtported Nabisco biscuts to more places so they put in ads of mags which went to more places which created a national brand.

Magazines and Ad

Contents: Editorial/Ads = 53/47
55% revenue from Ads
32% subscription income
13%single copy sales

Split Runs

special versions according to specific demographic or regional grouping

Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC)

est. 1914 providing reliability to announced circulation figure

Why are accurate circulation figures important?

Pricing and Space based on circulation

What else matters for pricing and spacing?

Subscription vs. single copy (66% subscription)
pass along readership
demography (ex. Socioeconomic status of readers)

Controlled Circulation (Custom Publishing)

Providing a magazine at no cost to readers who meet some specific set of advertiser-attractive criteria

Hemispheres( United Airlines)

Readers annual household income is $116,884; free mag on airplane; they encourage you to bring it home and show it to others and that person is rich and the ads are seen my richer people.

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