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34 terms

evolution of eukaryotes and diversity of protists

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How old is the earth?
N2, H
4.6 billion years old
most important thing about primitive atmosphere?
it was anaerobic
The primitive atmosphere had..
CO, CO2, N2, H2
what caused the primordial soup?
lightning, volcanic activity
contents of primordial soup
carbs, lipids, amino acids, nucleic acids
what is a protobiont?
aggregate of abiotically produced molecules surrounded by membrane
liposome
membrane-bound droplets
first organisms to evolve?
prokaryotes
prokaryote nuclei?
no distinct nucleus
prokaryote dna?
circular
prokaryote organelles?
no membrane bound organelles
where did prokaryotes originally live?
aquatic
what did prokaryotes live on?
heterotrophic (fed on organic molecules)
were prokaryotes aerobic or anaerobic?
anaerobic
first thing capable of photosynthesis
cyanobcteria (blue-green algae)
pigments for cyanobacteria
chlorophyll a and accessory pigments
what was cyanobacteria capable of?
fixing atmospheric n2
importance of phtosynthesis?
causes organism to be autotrophic and the water splitting created o2 as a biproduct,
what organisms can split water?
ones with chlorophyll a
what's so great about a bi product of 02?
aerobic atmosphere
ozone (o3) intercelts radiation
when did eukaryotes evolve?
2.1 bybp
eukaryotic nuclei?
well defined
eukaryotic dna?
organized into chromosomes and associated with histone proteins
eukaryotic organelles?
complex membrane bound organelles
how did the intracellular membrane system evolve so that eukaryotes could evolve?
the plasma membrane invaginateed and folded
how did mitochondria evolve for eukaryotes?
mitochondria endosymbiont theory: the cell engulfed an aerboic prokaryote and the prokaryote evolved into mitochondria
how did chloroplasts evolve?
serial or sergequential endosymbiosis: photosynthetic cells were engulfed by larger cells
four evidences of endosymbiosis evolution theories
dna
ribosomes
energy
membranes
they have circular dna and aren't assoiciated with histone proteins, they're semi-autonomous, ribosomes are similar to prokaryote ribosomes
similar membranes
general characteristics of protists?

___karyotic
____Cellular
____
eukaryotic,
unicellular or simple multicellular
basically don't fit in anywhere else
ancestor history of protists?
they're polyphletic (no single immediate ancestor
examples of protists
mold, amoebas, protozoans, alga, spirogyra, giardia,
where are protists on the food chain?
at the base!
uses of protists?
commercially
bad thing about protists?
disease