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56 terms

final exam vocabulary I

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continental drift
theory that states that there was a supercontinent that split into the continents of today
pangaea
(plate tectonics) a hypothetical continent including all the landmass of the earth prior to the Triassic period ~ 300 mya, when it split into Laurasia and Gondwanaland (LOL GONDWANALAND)
wegener
German geophysicist who proposed the theory of continental drift (1880-1930)
plate tectonics
the study of large scale movement and deformation of the earth's outer layers in terms of rigid plates over a partly molten layer of the upper mantle
oceanic crust
material that makes up the ocean floor
continental crust
material that makes up landmasses
convection
A circular movement in a liquid that carries heat from one place to another. In the earth it occurs in the mantle.
sea floor spreading
the theory that states that the sea floor moves apart and then at mid ocean ridges and causes continents to move, is evidence for continental drif
subduction zones
places where plates are pushed down into the upper mantle
mid-ocean ridge
an underwater moutain chain where new ocean floor is formed
trench
a long steep-sided depression in the ocean floor
rift valley
A long trough at the top of an oceanic ridge
convergent boundaries
places where two plates collide
divergent boundaries
places where two plates pull apart
transform fault
where two plates slide past each other, the san andreas fault is a
anticline
an upward fold in rock.
syncline
a downward fold in rock.
reverse fault
hanging wall slides up
normal fault
hanging wall slides down
thrust fault
a reverse fault where the hanging wall slides over the top of the foot wall
hanging wall
the upper wall of an inclined fault ; you can hang from it
foot wall
The block of rock below a fault ; you can walk by foot down it
strike-slip fault
break in rock caused by shear forces
compression
forces pushing together
tension
forces pulling apart
shearing
forces sliding by each other
mountain range
series of mountains together
mountain system
series of mountain ranges
mountain belts
group of two mountain systems
plateaus
Large area of high flat or gently rolling land
folded mountains
This is the result of a continental-continental collision. The Himalaya Mountains are a good example of this.
fault-block mountains
sharp, jagged mountains made of huge, tilted blocks of rock that are separated form surrounding rock by faults and form because of the pulling forces
grabens
Long, narrow valleys formed by the process of fault-blocking.
volcanic mountains
mountains that form when molten rock erupts onto the earth's surface
dome mountains
Magma pushes up through the ground molten rock then cools and hardens creating this kind of mountains
isostatic adjustment
up-and-down movements of the earth's crust to reach isostasy
epicenter
the point on the Earth's surface directly above the focus of an earthquake
focus
the point inside the Earth where an earthquake begins
elastic-rebound theory
states that as tectonic plates move relative to each other, elastic strain energy builds up along their edges in the rocks along fault planes. Since fault planes are not usually very smooth, great amounts of energy can be stored (if the rock is strong enough) as movement is restricted due to interlock along the fault. When the shearing stresses induced in the rocks on the fault planes exceed the shear strength of the rock, an earthquake occurs
seismograph
a measuring instrument for detecting and measuring the intensity and direction and duration of movements of the ground (as an earthquake)
richter scale
a logarithmic scale of 1 to 10 used to express the energy released by an earthquake
shield cones
volcanic deposit of hardened lava with a broad base and gentle slopes
composite cones
Large, step volcanoes that erupt violently.
cinder cones
Small mountains with steep sides that blow cinders and rock particles into the air when they erupt.
hot spots
When tecontic plates meet directly below a mantle plume, it forms these.
tephra
solid material ejected from a volcano during an eruption
lava
rock that in its molten form (as magma) issues from volcanos
pyroclastic flows
scalding avalanche of ash and hot, toxic expanding gas, traveling very fast down the flank of a volcano
lahars
mudflows (water mixed with ash)
erosion
(geology) the mechanical process of wearing or grinding something down (as by particles washing over it)
weathering
the decompocition and disintegration of rocks and minerals at the earth's surface by a mechanical and chemical process
mechanical weathering
the process of physically breaking down rock. For example, plant growth can split rock apart
chemical weathering
the process in which rock is broken down by changes in its chemical makeup
ice wedging
cracks in rocks filled with water that freezes and causes rock to crack
carbonation
CO2+H20 -> CH2O3 (Carbonic Acid). water reacts with minerals in rocks and breaks them down.
oxidation
the reaction that happens when iron rusts is an example of ....