Prentice Hall Biology Chapter 11 - Introduction to Genetics (2004)
Terms in this set (34)
scientific study of heredity.
process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell.
term used to describe organisms that produce offspring identical to themselves if allowed to self-pollinate.
specific characteristic that varies from one individual to another.
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait.
one of a number of different forms of a gene.
* ___________ states that some alleles are dominant and others are recessive.
The principle of dominance
separation of alleles during gamete formation.
specialized cell involved in sexual reproduction.
* When each F1 plant flowers and produces gametes, the two alleles ___________ from each other so that each gamete carries _____________ of each gene. Therefore each F1 plant produces (how many)____ types of gametes: they are...
only a single copy of each gene
produces 2 types of gametes
those with the allele for tallness and those with the allele for shortness.
likelihood that a particular event will occur.
* The principles of probability can be used to...
predict the outcomes of genetic crosses.
diagram showing the gene combinations that might result from a genetic cross.
* Punnett squares can be used to _____ and _____ the genetic variations that will result from a cross.
predict and compare
term used to refer to an organism that has two identical alleles for a particular trait.
term used to refer to an organism that has two different alleles for the same trait.
physical characteristics of an organism.
genetic make up of an organism.
independent segregation of genes during the formation of gametes.
* The principle of independent assortment states that...
genes for different traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes. Interdependent assortment helps account for the many genetic variations observed in plants, animals, and other animals.
situation in which one allele is not dominant over another.
situation in which both alleles of a gene contribute to the phenotype of the organism.
three or more alleles of the same gene.
trait controlled by two or more genes.
term used to prefer to chromosomes that each have a corresponding chromosome from the opposite-sex parent.
term used to prefer to a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes.
term used to prefer to a cell that contains only a single set of chromosomes and therefore only a single set of genes
*Meiosis is a process of _____ _______ in which the number of chromosomes per cell is ________ through the separation of ______ ______ in a _____ ______.
cut in half
homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell.
process by which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell.
structure containing 4 chromatids that forms during meiosis.
process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis.
* Mitosis results in the production of (number) ____ genetically _____ _______ cells, whereas meiosis produces (number) _____ genetically _____ _____ cells.
2 identical diploid
4 different haploid
* It is the chromosomes, however, that assort _______, not ______ _______.
independently, not independent genes.
diagram showing the relative locations of a each known gene on a particular chromosome.