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Fu Hao

a Chinese king's wife who led troops to war. Her tomb contained records of her life and times


Chines philosopher who stressed the need to respect tradition; his teachings discussed the right and wrong uses of power


Han emperor who ruled china from 140 B.C. to 87 B.C.; he set up a system of schools that prepared students for government jobs


Chinese emperor who founded the Qin dynastyand unified china with a standerdized system of writing and money; his tomb contained the famous "clay army"

Han Gaozu

a farmer-turned-general who, in 206 B.C., overthreww the Qin dynasty; he founded the Han dynasty


the father of history

Alexander the Great

king of Macedonia who conquered Greece, Persia, Egypt, and the Indus River Valley; his conquests spread throughout parts of three continents


Athenian general who led Athens during the war with Sparta; he made sure that poor as well as richcitizens could takepart in government


Greek philosopher who discussed laws, customs, values, and religion with students; accused of urging young people to revolt, he was sentenced to death


generalof carthage who marched his army from Spain to Rome in the second punic war


Roman generalwho defeated Hannibal in the battle of Zama outside Carthage, North America. in 202 B.C.

Julius Ceasar

Roman general who became the republic's dictator in 45 B.C.


Roman emperor who divided the empire in two and oversaw the eastern part


roman emperor who founded Constantinople as the new eastern capital of the roman empire

Pope Leo III

crowned charlemahne


king of the franks from 786to 814, amd the emerorof rome frome 800to814

King John

King of England from A.D. 1199 to 1216; in 1215 he signed the magna carta, giving more rights to British nobles


Italian Renaissance poet and humanist

Lorenzo de Medici

ruler of Florence during the Renaissance and patron of rapid modernization

Pope Urban II

pope who called for the first Crusade to reclaim Jerusalem from the Muslims

Queen Elizabeth

queen of England from 1558 to 1603; the English Renaissance flourished during her reign

Leonardo da Vinci

Italian renaissance artist, inventor, and scientist


Itailian Renaissance sculptor, painter, architect, and poet

Martin Luther

German monk and leader of the Protestant Reformation


Polish astronomer; in 1514 he discovered that Earth and the other planets revolve around the sun

Johann Gutenberg

German printer; in 1448 he invented a printing press that used movable type

William Shakespeare

English dramatist and poet; considered one of the greatest writers in the english language

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