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AP World History 15th Century
Terms in this set (45)
A major dynasty that ruled China from the mid-fourteenth to the mid-seventeenth century. It was marked by a great expansion of Chinese commerce into East Africa, the Middle East, and Southeast Asia. (1368-1644) Created a highly centralized government under emperor. created massive navy fleet led by zheng he that explored the Indian ocean. established Chinese power and prestige in Indian ocean and control over foreign trade in region.
An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa. he sought to enroll distant peoples/states in the chinese tribute system. dozens of rulers came back to china w/ zheng he and brought ostriches, giraffes, zebras etc. They did not seek to conquer new territories establish chinese settlements or spread their culture though.
1403-1424 Chinese emperor during the Ming dynasty who was a key figure in the restoration of China to greatness and who commissioned an enormous fleet to spread awareness of Chinese superiority to much of Asian and Eastern Africa. Was the chief patron of Zheng he's exploration enterprise and his death was a major cause in its abrupt ending.
Beginning in the vibrant commercial cities of Italy between roughly 1350 and 1500, it reflected the belief of the wealthy elite that they were living in a wholly new era, far removed from the confined religious world of feudal Europe. They returned to the ancient sources of Greece for art and literature. they used them as a cultural standard to imitate and surpass. More interested in capturing unique qualities of individuals and describing the world as it was than in eternal religious truths. its secular elements challenged the other worldliness of Christian culture, and its individualism signaled the dawning of a more capitalist economy of private entrepreneurs.
15th c. An Italian navigator who was funded by the Spanish Government to find a passage to the Far East. He is given credit for discovering the "New World," even though at his death he believed he had made it to India. He made four voyages to the "New World." The first sighting of land was on October 12, 1492, and three other journeys until the time of his death in 1503. his fleet was miniscule compared to Zheng he's Chinese fleet. Paved the way to the Americas.
Islamic state founded by Osman in northwestern Anatolia ca. 1300. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire, the Ottoman Empire was based at Istanbul (formerly Constantinople) from 1453 to 1922. It encompassed lands in the Middle East, North Africa, the Caucasus, and eastern Europe.
Shi'ite Muslim empire that ruled Persia from the 16th through 18th centuries.
Its diverse culture drew from Persian, Ottoman and Arab traditions. A great site of cultural blending; conquest and ongoing cultural interaction fueled the empire's development.
Portion of Mali after that kingdom collapsed around 1500; this empire controlled Timbuktu.
Muslim state (1526-1857) exercising dominion over most of India in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. (p. 536)
Central American empire constructed by the Mexica and expanded greatly during the fifteenth century during the reigns of Itzcoatl and Motecuzoma I.
Largest Empire ever built in South America; territory extended 2,500 miles from north to south and embraced almost all of modern Peru, most of Ecuador, much of Bolivia, and parts of Chile and Argentina; maintained effective control from the early 15th century until the coming of Europeans in the early 16th century. As the most powerful people of Andean America, the Inca dominated Andean society until the coming of Europeans; spoke Quechua language.
How would you define the major achievements of the Ming Dynasty?
(1368-1644) Created a highly centralized government under emperor. created massive navy fleet led by zheng he. established Chinese power and prestige in Indian ocean and control over foreign trade in region.
What were some of the historical and cultural differences between fifteenth-century China and Western Europe?
China: Centralized government. No internal disturbance. Effort to eliminate all signs of foreign rule, discouraging the use of mongol names and dress, while promoting Confucian learning.
Europe: Fragmented system of many separate, independent, and highly competitive states made for a sharply divided christendom. Some city-states and states learned to tax their citizens more efficiently and create more efficient administrative structures. Lots of competitive wars ie: hundred years war for france. Renaissance: reflected belief that they were living in new era, far removed from the confined religious world of feudal europe. Returning to the sources of art and literature.
How and why were there differences between the fifteenth-century maritime voyages of Europe and China?
China: Not interested in spreading culture or religion to other places. Self-sufficient, no desire to acquire foreign goods and felt that merchants would come to them for their goods. Concerned more about the insecure northern border than exploration. Already trading within the Indian ocean. Zheng He fleet under emperor Yongle although massive was stopped abruptly when Yongle died.
Europe: Wanted the wealth of Africa and Asia. Sought power and a new trading route so they would not have to trade past the Muslim empires. Wanted to spread their culture and religion to others. Much smaller fleet than China. No unified power to end voyages.
What differences can you identify among the four major empires in the Islamic world of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries?
Ottoman: 14th to early 20th cent. Turkic warriors extended its control to much of middle east, coastal n. Africa, lands around black sea, and farther into e. Europe. huge territory, long duration, incorporation of diverse peoples, cultural sophistication. Turks dominated Islamic world ruling over many Arabs who had initiated the new faith more than 800 yrs earlier. wanted to bring unity to Islamic world. Ottoman empire seized Constantinople marked demise of christian Byzantium. politically and militarily expanding.
Safavid:To the E. of ottoman empire. Also Turkic but emerged from a Sufi religious order. long-term significance was its decision to impose a Shia version of Islam as the official religion of state. this form of Islam over time gained support and came to define Persia (Iran). Also created sharp divide in political/religious life of heartland islam b/c most neighbours practiced sunni form of islam. conflict between ottoman/safavid. Sunni/shia hostility continues to divide islamic world into 21st c.
Songhay: West African Savannas. 2nd half of 15th c. most recent and largest in a series of impressive states that operated at a crucial intersection of the trans-saharan trade routes and that derived much of their revenue from taxing that commerce. Islam limited to elites. major centre of islamic learning and commerce although monarch practiced magic as well as proper islam tradition.
Mughal: Early 16th c. Also governed largely non-muslim population. Continued an ongoing encounter between Islamic and Hindu civilizations. Also result of islamized Turkic group that invaded India. Remarkable effort to blend Hindu and Muslim into partnership. Inclusive policies to accomodate Hindu population.
What distinguished the Aztec and Inca empires from each other?
Aztec: Mesoamerica. Used war prisoners as human sacrifice to appease the gods who they believed shed their blood to create humankind. gory sacrificial ceremonies included ripping out the heart of the sacrifices and the eating of their bodies done by the captors. The aztecs conquered neighbouring areas but require from them only homage through tribute and did not impose their culture and language upon them. loosely structured and unstable state.
Inca: Small community of Quechua-speaking peolple built western hemisphere's largest imperial state along the spine of the ande's mountains. Not only conquered regions but also implemented cultural integration, forcing subjects to learn Quechua and imposing authority among them through Incan supervisors. They even displaced people at times and required labor service rather than tribute. Authority of state penetrated society and economy more than aztecs.
What were the essential features of European Renaissance Humanism? How did the Dürer self-portrait reveal these features?
Study, philosophy or practice that focuses on human values and concerns. Durer portrayed as realistic that is as self-focused, self-absorbed and contemplative.
In what sense was Confucianism a humanist philosophy?
It was humanist because it focused on the individual but also fair treatment of others. It kind of has a 'live by example' philosophy that allows the individualism to lead social justice.
How and why did Confucianism influence the decision to end Chinese overseas exploration during the 15th century?
Confucianism had China focus on education and its own culture rather than exploring unknown areas. The focus on China as the centre of things led away from exploration.
lived East of the Niger in the forest of West Africa; dense population and trading networks could have given rise to states but didn't; rejected kingship and state building efforts; relied on other institutions to maintain social cohesion; stateless society; did not live isolated; common artistic traditions reflected a measure of cultural unity in a politically fragmented region and all of these people seemed to have changed from a matrilineal to a patrilineal system of tracing descent
the Igbos; rejected kingship
in present day New York state; fully agricultural, adopting maize and bean farming techniques that had originated in Mesopotamia centuries earlier; women worked in fields; because of their agriculture, population grew, settlements increased, distinct peoples emerged, frequent warfare; all of their warfare triggered a remarkable political innovation- a loose alliance or confederation around 5 people: the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca → the Iroquois League of Five Nations that settled differences peacefully through a council → gave expression to values of limited government, social equality, and personal freedom
warrior who tried to restore the Mongol Empire; died while preparing for an invasion of China; his descendants retain control of the area between Persia and Afghanistan; his conquest proved to be the last great military success of nomadic peoples from Central Asia
Ming Dynasty China
recovered from the Mongol rule; tried to eliminate all signs of foreign rule, discouraging the use of Mongol names and dress, while promoting Confucian learning and orthodox gender roles; Emperor Yongle sponsored an enormous Encyclopedia of some 11000 volumes with contributions from more than 2000 scholars; relocated the capital to Beijing and created the Forbidden City and the Temple of Heaven, where rulers performed Confucian rituals to ensure the well-being of Chinese society; reestablished the civil service system exam and created a highly centralized government; rebuilt canals, reservoirs, and irrigation systems; undertook the largest and most impressive maritime expeditions going to Southeast Asia, Indonesia, India, Arabia, and East Africa which were sought to enroll distant people and states into the Chinese tribute system; did not seek to conquer new areas
Zheng He Muslim
eunuch who captained all of the maritime expeditions of the Ming Dynasty; his expeditions served to establish Chinese power and prestige in the Indian Ocean and to exert Chinese control foreign trade; but these expeditions were abruptly stopped after the death of Yongle
renewed cultural blossoming in Europe which paralleled the revival of all things Confucian in the Ming Dynasty; reclaimed a classical Greco-Roman tradition; reflected the belief of the wealthy male elite that they were living in a wholly new area, far removed from the confined religious world of feudal Europe; sought inspiration in the art and literature; ex: Leonardo da Vinci; artists now included portraits and busts of well-known contemporary figures; interested in capturing the unique qualities of particular individuals and in describing the world as it was than portraying or exploring eternal religious truths; reflected the urban bustle and commercial preoccupations of Indian cities; secular elements challenged the other worldliness of Christian culture and its individualism signaled the dawning of a more capitalist economy of private entrepreneurs
Christine de Pizan
the daughter of a Venetian official who lived mostly in Paris; her writings pushed against the misogyny (the hatred of women) of so many contemporary European thinkers; City of Ladies; showed that women could be active members of society and deserved equal education
Where did Paleolithic lifestyles persist by the 15th century? Why? The Pacific Oceania region (Australia) because it is an island isolated from all
other civilizations and had chiefdoms and stratified societies
How did the Ming Dynasty reestablish the Chinese empire?
Tried to eliminate all signs of foreign rule, discouraged the use of Mongol names and dress, promoted Confucian learning and orthodox gender roles, relocated the capital to Beijing, reestablished the civil service exam system, created a highly centralized government, restored millions of acres to cultivation
new Islamic state; creation of one of the many Turkic warrior groups that had earlier migrated to Anatolia; expanded its power to the Middle East, coastal North Africa, the lands surrounding the Black Sea, and into Eastern Europe; represented the emergence of the Turks as the dominant people of the Islamic world; added "caliph" to their titles and claimed the legacy of the Abbasid Empire; sought to bring a renewed unity to the Islamic world while also serving as a protector of faith; represented a new phase in the long encounter between Christendom and Islam; saw themselves as the successors of the Roman empire after the Crusades; political unity
Turkic but had emerged from a Sufi religious order; forcibly imposed a Shia version of Islam as the official religion of the state; sharp divide between political and religious life of heartland Islam; brought political unity
rose in West Africa and expanding African and Asian frontiers; Islam was a growing faith but was limited to urban elites → accounts for the religious behavior of the monarch Sonni Ali who gave alms and fasted during Ramadan but also enjoyed a reputation as a magician and possessed a charm through to render his soldiers invisible to their enemies; but still was a major learning and commerce center of Islam
governed largely non Muslim populations; creation of another Islamized Turkic group which invaded India; Persian term for Mongols; established unified control over Indian peninsula and gave it a rare period of political unity and laying the foundation for subsequent British rule
These four Muslim empires brought political coherence, military power, economic prosperity, and cultural brilliance "second flowering of Islam"
Mughal, Songhay, Safavid, and Ottoman
a semi-nomadic group from northern Mexico who had migrated south and established themselves on a small island in Lake Texcoco; developed military capacity, served as mercenaries for more powerful people, negotiated elite marriages alliance and built up their capital city Tenochtitlan; highly aggressive military conquest which in less than 100 years brought Mesoamerica within a single political framework; loosely structured and unstable conquest state that witnessed frequent rebellions; conquered people/places had to give tribute regularly
artificial gardens created from swamplands and supported a highly productive agriculture system
professional merchants who were legally commoners but their wealth, which exceeded that of elites, allowed them to rise in society and become "magnates of the land"
Aztec patron deity affiliated with the cycle of the world, the sun and things central to all life
a small community known as the Incans; built up the Western Hemisphere's largest imperial state along the spine of the Andes Mountains; centralized political systems; inspectors for each region; free to carry on personal religious traditions as long as they acknowledged the major Inca deities
record system that was made up of knotted cords
Mita labor system
conquered people had to work for the state; the "chosen women" were removed from their homes as young girls and were trained to produce corn beer or cloth then given to men of distinction and could become priestesses "wives of the sun"; Inca ideology expressed in terms of family relationships required the state to provide elaborate feasts
What were the major political features of the Aztec and Inca Empires?
Both originally clan based and based on earlier civilizations, centered on the conquest of other groups and tribute Aztec: ruled by a warrior and kings were divine, ruler had absolute power, did not directly administer or control territories, regions paid in stuff Inca: ruled by theocracy, absolute power divided conquered territory and had governors, government controlled building and irrigation projects, and enlisted people into military, regions paid in labor
What were the major social and economic features of the Aztec and Inca Empires?
Inca: classes were the ruling elites, aristocrats, priests, and peasants, the ruler was seen as a god-king descended from the sun, peasants made up the bulk of society and lived in societies called ayllu, women worked in fields as well as weaving cloth and caring for the house and could pass property onto their daughters, agricultural based economy Aztec: extremely hierarchal, all males were seen as potential warriors, distinguished classes, more artisans than peasants in empire, women had great power in family life and gained respect through their children
What were the major cultural features of the Aztec and Inca Empires?
Inca: advanced metallurgy, art, textiles, and ceramics, numerical systems and the quipu, ancestral deities is what most people traced their origins to, claimed descent from Sun and Moon, required sacrifices Aztec: polytheistic, human sacrifices and religious festivals with patterns of religious calendar, created unique and accurate calendar, temple things, school system
What distinguished the Aztec and Inca empires from each other?
The Aztec and Inca empires distinguished themselves from each other in many ways, including how they required tribute from conquered people and how great their influence was depending on how stable and organized the government was.
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