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29 terms

OHVA Bio Sem2 Unit 2 Evolution Vocabulary

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adaptation
structural, behavioral, and physiological traits that make an organism fit for its environment
amino acids
the organic molecules that serve as the units from which proteins are made
anaerobic
reaction that does not need oxygen
comparative embryology
the study of similarities and differences in the embryos of different organisms
cyanobacteria
type of prokaryote, blue-green, mostly photosynthetic
dichotomous
having 2 parts
directional selection
selection that tends to favor one extreme form of a trait over another
disruptive selection
a type of natural selection in which individuals with both extreme traits are favored and individuals with the average trait are not favored
eukaryotes
groups of organisms made of one or more cells that have a membrane-bounded nucleus and membrane-bounded organelles
evolution
the change in allele frequencies in a population over time
fossil
the remains of ancient living things
gene pool
all the genes in all the members of a population
genetic drift
a change in the gene frequency of a population due to random events
genetic recombination
the movement of genes from one homologous chromosome to another via crossing-over during meiosis
genetic variation
genetic diversity in a population
homologous structures
structures that occur in different species but are similar enough to suggest that the species had a common ancestor
migration
a regular movement of animals to a different location because of weather conditions, or of food, water, or shelter requirements
mutation
a change in a DNA molecule or in the structure of a chromosome
natural selection
the process in which the natural environment acts on individuals so that those with favorable traits survive and reproduce and those that do not have those traits are eliminated
phylogenetic
Relating to or based on evolutionary development or history
phylogenetic tree
a diagram displaying the evolutionary relationships of types of organisms
phylogeny
the evolutionary history of organisms
population
all of the members of one species that live in a common area and whose population dynamics are different from those of other populations
prokaryotes
organisms that usually are made of a single cell and do not have a membrane-bound nucleus or membrane-bound organelles
radiometric dating
a way of determining the absolute age in years of geologic samples using radioactive isotopes
stabilizing selection
selection that favors the average form of a trait over extreme forms
stromatolites
some of the oldest fossils, dome structures built by cyanobacteria
taxonomy
the science of naming and classifying organisms based on their natural relationships
vestigial structures
structures that appear to have no function for the organism but probably had a function in an ancestral organism