A, B, AB, & O; surface proteins on RBCs.
Rh factor- proteins on membrane surface of the blood cell.
You get the blood type of what you inherit from your parents, and over time your body will make its own anitbodies against the other antigen.
When a baby is born, the baby inherits the blood type and Rh factor according to the parents.
A- A antigen, B antibody, Anti-B serum anitbody >>> may accept from A/O.
B- B antigen, A antibody, Anti-A serum antibody >>> may accept from B/O.
AB- A&B antigen, universal recipient >>> may recieve from A/B/O.
O- Universal donor; no antigens, Anti-A and Anti-B serum antibodies >>> May receive from O.
Type O blood can only receive type O blood.
Rh+ or Rh- >>> protein on the membrane of the RBCs, you cannot give a Rh- person Rh+ blood and vice versa.
85% of population is Rh+.
* Women are given an IM injecction (3mo prior to delivery) of Rogan > suppresses the immune response so that women having babies with a different Rh factor than themselvevs can have up to 3 successful pregnancies.
O- blood= most valuable blood, can be given to anybody.
Must get consent from the pt before a blood transfusion.
** Most often packed cells are given, because pts usually dont need the other volume and compnents like plasma.
Truma pts who are actively bleeding should receive whole blood.
FFP has clotting factors in it > given to people whole are having clotting disorders.
** you can also give only platelets if the pt has poor coagulation.
Cryoprecipitation: contains clotting factors (given for hemophilia).
Blood is hung on a pump, FFP is run by gravity drip.
Make sure that you have the right pt and the right blood type.
Pharmacy gives you the IV tubing that you need.
Reactions will occur w/i the first 50mL given during a blood transfusion.
Always give blood slowly!!!
Blood should never hang for more than 5 hours >>> clots, warms up d/t environmental temperature which encourages bacterial growth.
Blood must be kept refrigerated.
* Do VS before starting blood, every 15min for the first hr, then every 30 min during the transfusion, then an hour after the transfusion is completed.
Temperatures in the 99 range will prbably get tylenol.
Any change above 2 degrees is an indication of an adverse reaction to a blood transfusion, STOP THE TRANSFUSION IMMEDIATELY IF THE TEMPERATURE STARTS TO RISE DURING THE TRANSFUSION, ASSESS THE PT, AND CALL MD.
A 2-degree rise in temp is very significant in 1 hour.
Cryoprecipitate is only about 20Ml's, so it can just be run in on its own under a steady drip.
Start a brand new line if someone is getting mulitple units > when you get the tubing, (2 ports; 1 going to saline, the other going to blood), clamp the line containing the blood, open up saline and prime the tubing with NS, then start the blood.
PLTs can be given over 30min and FFP can be given over 30-60min.
* NS has to be given with blood! Dextrose is hypotonic and the blood cells will rupture.
* Make sure that you look at your pt periodically, you dont want to miss an early reaction. PHYSICALLY TAKE TEMP.
* The longer that the blood is frozen, the higher the risk for the blood becoming contaminated.
Sepsis = same as bacterial infection.
ALWAYS INFUSE BLOOD AT LEAST FOUR HOURS IF NOT SLOWER, ALWAYS GO AS SLOW AS YOU CAN.