843 terms

All of Mythology Ever In MythologyBoss History

This set was made by Deryk Frank.

Terms in this set (...)

The god of begginings, transitions, gates, doors, doorways, passages, and endings.
The King of the gods, and god of the sky, daily lightning, and thunder.
The god of capitol, wealth, agriculture, liberation, and time.
The god of divine nature.
The god of financial gain, commerce, eloquence, messages, communication, travelers, boundaries, luck, trickery and thieves.
The god of music, poetry, art, oracles, archery, plague, medicine, sun, light and knowledge.
The god of soldiers, farmers, war, destruction and masculinity.
The god of fire, volcanoes, metalworking, and the forge.
The god of freshwater, earthquakes, hurricanes, horses and the sea.
The god of the sun.
The god of the underworld.
The god of viticulture, wine, male fertility, and freedom.
The goddess of the earth.
The goddess of agriculture, grain crops, fertility, and motherly relationships.
The queen of the gods, and goddess of marriage and childbirth.
The goddess of the moon.
The goddess of the hunt, the moon, birthing, forests, and wild animals.
The goddess of wisdom, arts, crafts, medicine, commerce, defense and magic, virginity.
The goddess of love, beauty, sex, fertility, prosperity, and desire.
The goddess of the hearth, home, and family.
The goddess of wildlife, fertility, health and abundance.
The goddesses of derivination.
The god of shepherds, flocks, and livestock.
The goddess of safety, well-being, welfare, health and prosperity.
The goddess of fortune and luck.
The god of wells and springs.
The goddess of trust.
The goddess of the earth and fertility.
The goddess of flowers, spring, and nature.
The god of flying arrows.
The god of nightly thunder.
The goddess of beauty and loquacity
The god of boundaries.
The god of spears.
The god of seasons, shapeshifting, plant growth, gardens, and fruit trees.
The gods of protection.
The goddess of childbirth.
The god of the protection of grain fields.
The goddess of freshwater.
Bonus Eventus
The god of good events.
The god of forest, plains, and fields.
Dryads were tree spirits.
The god of bee-keeping.
The god of nature, the wild, shepherds, flocks, goats, mountain wilds, and sexuality.
The goddess of the harvest.
The god of woods and fields.
"He who ploughs"
"He who prepares the earth"
"He who ploughs with a wide furrow"
"He who plants seeds"
"He who traces the first plowing"
"He who harrows"
"He who digs"
"He who weeds"
"He who reaps"
"He who carries the grain"
"He who stores the grain"
"He who distributes the grain"
The goddess of the field.
The god of sacrifice.
The god of sewing.
The goddess of the protection of the planted seed.
The goddess who promotes the growth of the seeding.
The goddess who makes grain grow evenly.
The god who nurtures the grain.
The goddess who induces envelopes.
The god who makes the knot.
The goddess who opens the grain.
The goddess of weeding and mowing.
The goddess of reaping.
The god of threshing.
The goddess who watches over the stored grain.
The goddess who manures the fields.
The divine personification of abundance and prosperity.
The god of the Acis River in Sicily.
The goddess of Celtic origin and the underworld.
The divine personification of fairness.
The god of health and medicine.
The goddess and personification of eternity.
The hellenistic god of cyclical or unbounded time.
The god whose sacred grove, lucus, was near the Tiber river.
The goddess who relieved people from pain and sorrow.
The goddess of snakes.
Anna Perrena
The early goddess of the circle of the year.
The divine personification of the grain supply to the city of Rome.
The goddess of the future.
The goddess of the dawn
The god propitiated to avert calamity.
The god of wine, sexual pleasures, and truth.
The war goddess.
Bona Dea
The goddess of fertility, healing, and chastity.
The goddess of cattle.
The goddess of fire.
The god of the sky before Jupiter.
The goddess of fresh water, prophecy, and childbirth
The goddess of the hinge
The goddess of childbirth and prophecy
The two goddesses of childbirth
The goddess who preserved the health of the heart and other internal organs.
The goddess of forgiveness and mercy.
The goddess who presided over the system of sewers in Rome.
The goddess of agreement, understanding, and marital harmony.
The personification of care and concern.
Dea Dia
The goddess of growth.
Dea Tacita
The goddess of the underworld, and later, the earth.
The goddess of the brooms used to purify the temples used for worship.
Dius Fidius
The god of oaths.
The personification of discipline.
Dis Pater
The god of wealth and the underworld.
The goddess of horses and horsemanship.
The goddess of fame and rumor.
The goddess of prophecy
The goddess with the power to cause or prevent fevers and malaria.
The personification of fertility.
The personification of good luck and success.
The personification of loyalty.
The god of wine, natural growth, and health.
The personification of lightning.
The god of strength, whose worship was derived from the Greek hero Heracles but took on a distinctly Roman character.
The divine personification of honor.
The primordial goddess of childbirth
The god of fertility, sexual intercourse, and the protector of livestock.
The goddess of envy and wrongdoing.
The goddess of justice.
The goddess of fountains, wells, and springs.
The goddess of youth.
The goddess of the rite through which fathers accepted newborn babies as their own.
The goddess or personification of generosity.
The goddess or personification of freedom.
The goddess of death, corpses and funerals.
The goddess to whom soldiers sacrificed captured weapons.
The god of the morning star.
The god of shepherds and wolves.
Mana Genita
The goddess of infant mortality.
The god of the dead and ruler of the underworld. (However, this is only in Etruscan worships)
Mater Matuta
The goddess of dawn and childbirth.
The goddess of healing.
The goddess and personification of poisonous gases and volcanic vapors.
The goddess of bees and beekeeping.
The goddess of grinding the grain.
The primordial goddess of memory.
The personification of death.
The primordial goddess of death.
The goddess of sloth and laziness.
The goddess of funerary lament.
The personification of the act of birth.
The goddess of destiny.
The ancient war goddess and the personification of valor.
The goddess of night.
The goddess of peace.
The primordial god of fertility, agriculture, matrimony, infants, and children.
The goddess of duty.
The goddess of punishment.
The goddess of fruit trees, gardens and orchards.
The primordial goddess of the future.
The primordial god of keys, doors, and livestock.
The goddess of childbirth and the past.
The queen of the dead and a grain-goddess.
The goddess of forethought.
The goddess and personification of chastity.
The goddess of motherhood.
The god or goddess (the goddess would be called Robigus) who personified grain disease and protected crops.
The goddess who protected breastfeeding mothers.
The goddess of seawater.
The goddess of the public welfare of the Roman people
The god of loyalty, honesty, and oaths.
The goddess of security.
Sol Invictus
The ancient sun god.
The god of sleep.
The god of luck.
The goddess of hope.
Stata Mater
The goddess who protected against fires.
The goddess of persuasion.
The goddess of storms or sudden weather.
The goddess of peace and tranquility.
The goddess of crossroads and magic.
The primordial goddess of agriculture, the fruitfulness of soil and plants, and abundance.
The primordial goddess of marriage.
The goddess of rest after harvest who protected the farmers sheep
The god of cattle worms.
Vica Pota
The goddess of victory and competitions.
The goddess of victory.
The god or goddess of military strength, personification of Roman virtue.
The primordial god of water
The goddess of pleasure.
The king of the gods and god of the winds.
The god of hidden places.
The god of death, the dead, funerals, and the underworld.
The goddess of rivers.
The god of evil.
The god of strength and fertility.
The primordial god of the sun.
The god of creation.
The goddess of cats, protection, joy, dance, music, and love.
The goddess of cows.
The god of fortune, fertility, the arts, and dwarfs.
Four sons of Horus
Their names were Imsety, Duamutef, Hapi, and Qebehsenuef. They were the personifications of canoptic jars.
The god of the earth.
The god of the flooding of the Nile.
The goddess of the sky, love, beauty, joy, motherhood, foreign lands, mining, music, and fertility.
The god of infinity and eternity.
The goddess of magic.
The goddess of fate.
The gods of life and fertility.
The god of the sun, sky, and kingship.
The goddess of health, wisdom, and marriage.
The goddess of rebirth, the sunrise, and scarab.
The god of creation and the waters.
The god of the moon.
The god of darkness, the void, and evil.
The god of war.
The god of truth and justice.
The god against snakes and scorpions.
The goddess of war.
The goddess of tomb builders and protector of royal tombs
The goddess of childbirth.
The god of fertility.
The god of warfare, the sun, and valor.
The queen of the goddess' and the lady of heaven.
The goddess of healing and fertility.
The goddess of war, hunting, weaving, and wisdom.
The goddess of death, service, lamentation, nighttime and rivers.
The goddess of the sky.
The god of the afterlife, death, life, and resurrection.
The goddess of creation, the arts, fertility and of craftsmen
The goddess of fertility, ecstasy, and sexual pleasure.
The god of the sun and radiance.
The god who protected against plague and war.
The goddess of fire, war, vengeance, menstruation, and medicine.
The goddess of healing venomous stings and bites and goddess of scorpions
The goddess of writing and wisdom
The god of storms, desert, chaos and war
The god of the wind and air.
The god of the Nile, the Army, military, fertility, and of crocodiles.
The goddess of fertility and childbirth.
The goddess of moisture and the air.
The god of knowledge.
The god of war and hunting.
The god of camel-riders
The god of the nocturnal moon
The god of knowledge, commerce, writing, and prophecy
The god of war and the night
The god of the sun
The god of the daily moon
The god of judgement and justice
The goddess of fertility
The goddess of uncertain gender
The god of the morning star
The king of heaven and the god of eagles, lightning, and the sky
The god of healing
The god of mountains
The god of oracles
The god of arrows
The goddess of fate
The messenger of the gods
The god of wisdom, writing, and vegetation
The god of time
The god of vultures and the desert
The god of the nocturnal sun
The god of the Grape Harvest, Winemaking, Wine, Ritual Madness, Religious Ecstasy, Fertility and Theatre.
The god of smiths
The god of weather
The god of protection
The god of time worshipped in the early 30 B.C.s.
The god of the red moon
The arabic form of JESUS!!! YEAH!!
The first god of the sky, and ruler of all gods and creation
The god of the blue moon
The King of the gods, the ruler of Mount Olympus and the god of the sky, weather, thunder, lightning, law, order, and fate.
The Queen of the Heavens and goddess of marriage, women, childbirth, heirs, kings, and empires.
The goddess of love, beauty, desire, and pleasure. She is dating Ares yet married to Hephaestus.
The god of war, bloodshed, and violence. He is dating Aphrodite.
The crippled god of fire, metalworking, crafts and the forge.
The god of light, music, arts, knowledge, healing, plague and darkness, prophecy, poetry, purity, athleticism, manly beauty, and enlightenment.
The virgin goddess of the hunt, wilderness, animals, young girls, childbirth and plague.
The goddess of intelligence and skill, warfare, battle strategy, handicrafts, and wisdom. She is mainly depicted as a complete ace hole.
The goddess of grain, agriculture and the harvest, growth and nourishment.
The god of wine, parties and festivals, madness, chaos, drunkenness, drugs, and ecstasy.
The King of the Underworld and the dead, and god of the earth's hidden wealth, both agricultural produce and precious metals.
The god of boundaries, travel, communication, trade, thievery, trickery, language, writing, diplomacy, athletics, and animal husbandry.
The god of the sea, rivers, floods, droughts, earthquakes, and the creator of horses; known as the "Earth Shaker".
The titan of light. With Theia, he is the father of Helios (the sun), Selene (the moon), and Eos (the dawn).
The titan of mortality and father of Prometheus, Epimetheus, Menoetius, and Atlas.
The goddess of the hearth, home, architecture, domesticity, family, and the state.
The Queen of the Underworld, springtime, vegetation, and maidenhood.
The titan of intellect and the axis of heaven around which the constellations revolved.
The least individualized of the Twelve Titans, he is the father of Astraeus, Pallas, and Perses.
This is a sea god that is used only by people in modern days. This is not ancient literature, so it does not qualify for this set.
The titan of memory and remembrance, and mother of the Nine Muses.
The titan of the all-encircling river Oceans around the earth, the font of all the Earth's fresh-water.
The titan of the "bright" intellect and prophecy, and consort of Koios.
The titan of female fertility, motherhood, and generation. She is the sister and consort of Cronus, and mother of Zeus, Hades, Poseidon, Hera, Demeter, and Hestia.
The wife of Oceanus, and the mother of the rivers, springs, streams, fountains, and clouds.
The titan of sight and the shining light of the clear blue sky. She is the consort of Hyperion, and mother of Helios, Selene, and Eos.
The titan of divine law and order.
The titan of nocturnal oracles and falling stars.
The titan of dusk, stars, and planets, and the art of astrology.
The titan forced to carry the sky upon his shoulders by Zeus. Also Son of Iapetus.
The titan of the breeze and the fresh, cool air of early morning.
The titan of the oracle of Dodona.
The titan of the dawn.
The titan of afterthought and the father of excuses.
The titan of the mastery of the seas and consort of Krios.
The titan of water-meadows and pasturelands, and mother of the three Charites by Zeus.
The titan of the sun and guardian of oaths.
The titan of renown, fame, and infamy, and wife of Iapetos.
The titan of air and the hunter's skill of stalking prey. He is the male counterpart of Leto.
The titan of motherhood and mother of the twin Olympians, Artemis and Apollo.
The titan of violent anger, rash action, and human mortality. Killed by Zeus.
The titan of good counsel, advice, planning, cunning, craftiness, and wisdom. Mother of Athena.
An elder Titan, in some versions of the myth he ruled the Earth with his consort Eurynome before Cronus overthrew him. Another account describes him as a snake, born from the "World Egg"
The titan of warcraft. He was killed by Athena during the Titanomachy.
The titan of destruction and peace.
The titan of forethought and crafty counsel, and creator of mankind.
The titan of the moon.
The titan of the Underworld river Styx and personification of hatred.
The Hundred-Handed Ones, giant gods of violent storms and hurricanes. Three sons of Uranus and Gaea, each with their own distinct characters.
Briareus or Aigaion (Βριάρεως), The Vigorous
Cottus (Κόττος), The Furious
Gyges (Γύγης), The Big-Limbed
A man-eating Thracian giant who was half-man and half-bear
The eldest of the Thracian giants, who was slain by Heracles
Twin giants who attempted to storm heaven, in some accounts, using a hill piled up with stone.
Otos or Otis
A Libyan giant who wrestled all visitors to the death until he was slain by Heracles
Three one-eyed giants who forged the lightning-bolts of Zeus, Trident of Poseidon and Helmet of Hades
Arges (Ἄργης)
Brontes (Βρόντης)
Steropes (Στερόπης)
A cyclops who briefly captured Odysseus and his men, only to be overcome and blinded by the hero
A monstrous immortal storm-giant who attempted to launch an attack on Mt. Olympus but was defeated by the Olympians and imprisoned in the pits of Tartarus (tie.foon)
The spirit of the death-mist, personification of sadness and misery
The spirit of satiety and gluttony
The spirit of injustice and wrongdoing
The spirit of idleness, laziness, indolence and sloth
The spirit of contest, who possessed an altar at Olympia, site of the Olympic Games.
The spirit of modesty, reverence and respect
The spirit of the war cry
The spirit of blood feuds and vengeance
The spirit of truth, truthfulness and sincerity
The spirit of lawlessness and poor civil constitution
The goddess of peace
The incarnation of Varchas, son of moon god Chandra
Born of mortal man and a nymph, but became immortal.
Percy Jackson
A fictitious character. Son of posedon and is famous for rick riordan's series about him. Named after Perseus.
The Algea
The spirits of pain and suffering ,
Achos (Ἄχος) "trouble, distress"
Ania (Ἀνία) "ache, anguish"
Lupe (Λύπη) "pain, grief, sadness"
The spirit of prowess and courage
The spirit of helplessness and want of means
The Amphilogiai
The spirits of disputes, debate, and contention
The spirit of ruthlessness, shamelessness, and unforgivingness
The Androktasiai
The spirits of battlefield slaughter
The spirit of messages, tidings and proclamations
The spirit of deceit, guile, fraud and deception
The spirit of simplicity
The spirit of difficulty, perplexity, powerlessness, and want of means
The Arae
The spirits of curses
The spirit of virtue, excellence, goodness, and valour
The spirit of delusion, infatuation, blind folly, recklessness, and ruin
The spirit of force, power, bodily strength, and compulsion
The leader of the Titans, who overthrew his father Uranus only to be overthrown in turn by his son, Zeus. He is known as the god of time. Not to be confused with Chronos.
The god of seals
The god of dolphins
The goddess of magic, crossroads, witchcraft, and necromancy
The god of the wind
The Charities
The spirits of grace, beauty, joy, festivity, dance, and song
The Muses
The spirits of music, song, dance, poetry inspiration, and knowledge
The god oof the stars
The god of youth
The gof of death and mortality
The god of the wild, shepherds, flocks, wild mountains, hunting, and folk music
The Nymphs
The spirits of forests, rivers, springs, mountains, meadows, seas, and the beauty of nature
The goddess of night
The goddess of day
The goddess of revenge, balance, righteous indignation, and retribution
The goddess of childbirth
The god of strength
The goddess of snow
The goddess of discord, war, strife, contention, and rivalry
The goddess of young love
The goddess of rainbows, and sometimes a messenger for the gods
The god of fear
The god of terror and dread
The goddess of beautiful song
The god of sleep
The god of dreams
The god of bugs
The goddess of luck, fortune, chance, fate, and providence
The god of sea monsters and the dangers of the sea
The god of hidden depths
The goddess and personification of the earth
The god of the sky
The primordial god of water
The god of healing and medicine
The goddess of health, cleanliness, and sanitation
The god of healing processes
The goddess of soothing pain
The god of universal remedies
The god of good health
The god of the north wind
The god of the south wind
The god of the west wind
The god of the east wind
River Gods
The god of rivers (duh)
The gods of mountains
The god of hope
The god of misery and poison
The Erinyes
The spirits of vengeance, pain, punishment, and retribution
The Moiroi
The spirits of fate, otherwise known as the fates
The god of old age
The god of the abyss (often mistaken as a titan)
The god of creation, chaos, and emptiness
The god of farming and farmers
The god of raging sea storms
The god of waves
The goddess of counter-love
The goddess of mockery, blame, censure, and stinging critism
The god of the upper atmosphere and light
The god of inevitability, compulsion, and necessity
The god of time, not to be confused with Kronos, titan of time.
The god of darkness and shadow
The Nesoi
The spirits of islands
The goddess of dirty water
The god of Contest
The god of lot
The god trouble and distress
The goddess of ache and anguish
The goddess of pain, grief, and sadness
The god of delusion, infatuation, blind folly, recklessness, and ruin
The god of opportunity
The god of surfeit
Justice and Rightousness
Justice, Fair Judgement, Rights, and Springtime Growth
Trickery, Cunning Deception, Craftiness, Treachery, and Guile
Truce, Armistice, and the Cessation of All Hostilities
Mercy, Pity, and Compassion
Hope and Expectation
Prudence, Shrewdness, Thoughtfulness, Carefulness, and Sagacity
Sweet Talk and Flattery
Good Repute and Glory
Discretion, Caution, and Circumspection
Good Order, Lawful Conduct, and Green Pastures
Words of Good Omen, Acclamation, Praise, Applause, and Shouts of Triumph
Piety, Loyalty, Duty, and Filial Respect
Prosperity, Abundance, and Plenty
Harmony and Concord
Pleasure, Enjoyment, and Delight
The Din of Battle
Concord, Unanimity, and the Oneness of the Mind
Impulse, Effort, Eagerness, Setting Oneself in Motion, and Starting an Action
Outrageous Behaviour
The Neikea
Quarrels, Feuds, and Grievances
Woe and Misery
Dreams of Fantasy
Epiales and Phobetor
Backrush, Flight, and Retreat From Battle
The Hysminai
Fighting and Combat
Pursuit in Battle
Vice and Moral Badness
The Keres
Violent Deaths and Cruel Deaths
Stupidity and Foolishness
Strength, Might, Power, and Sovereign Rule
The Din of Battle, Confusion, Uproar, and Hubbub
Forgetfulness and Oblivion, not to be confused with the river and river god with the same name.
Hunger and Starvation
The Litae
Rage, Fury, and Rabies
The Machai
Fighting and Combat
Madness, Insanity, and Frenzy
Persuasion and Seduction
Poverty and Need
Grief, Mourning, and Lamentation
Rumor, Report, and Gossip
Friendliness, Kindness, and Welcoming
Friendship and Affection
The Phonoi
Murder, Killing, and Slaughter
Horror and Trembling Fear
Envy and Jealousy
Trust, Honesty, and Good Faith
Retribution, Vengeance, Recompense, Punishment, and Penalty for Murder and Manslaughter
Hard Labor and Toil
Exacting Justice
Onrush and Battlefield Pursuit
Excuses and Pleas
The Pseudologoi
Soter and Soteria
Safety, Preservation, and Delivery From Harm
Moderation, Self-Control, Temperance, Restraint, and Discretion
Art and Skill
Eager Rivalry, Emulation, Jealousy, Envy, and Zeal
Blessed Death
Violent Sea Storms
Fishing and Fishermen
Whirlpools and the Tide
The Graeae
Sea Foam
Clean Water
The Ichthyocentaurs
Sea Depths
Leucothea and Palaemon
Sailors in Distress
Calm Seas
The Wonders of the Sea
Swift Currents
The Navy
Southwest Wind
Northwest Wind
Northeast Wind
Southwest Wind
Eosphorus and Hesperus
The Hesperides
The Nephelae
Wine and Friendship Between Nations
The Anthousae
Bee-Keeping, Cheese-Making, Herding, and Olive-Growing
Nets, Fowling, and Hunting Small Animals
Revelry, Merrymaking, and Festivity
Fruit of the Ivy
The Dactyls
Fingers and Metalworking
The Epimeliades
Highland Pastures and Sheep Flocks
Skill With Hands
The Horae
Spring Buds and Spring Shoots
Spring Growth
Fruits of the Earth
Pherousa, Euporie, and Orthosie
First Light of the Morning
The Morning Hour of Music and Study
The Morning Hour of Gymnastics and Exercise
The Morning Hour of Bathing and Washing
Offerings After Lunch
The Afternoon Hour of Prayer
The Afternoon Hour of Eating and Pleasure
The Night Sky and Constellations
The Korybantes
Rustic Dance
The Palici
Garden Fertility
Harvest Festival
Flour Mill
Wagon and the Plow
Radiant Good Health
Cures, Remedies, and Modes of Healing
Recuperation of Illness and/or Injury
Unmixed Wine
Alexiares and Anicetus
Good Cheer, Joy, Mirth, and Merriment
Festive Celebrations and Rich and Luxurious Banquets
Flowery Wreaths
Rest and Relaxation
Good Mood
Play and Amusement
All-Night Festivities
The Daemones Ceramici
Destroying Pots
Preparation of Meals
Olive Branch
Destructive War
Marriage Feasts
Love Charm
Ḫaldi was one of the three chief deities of Ararat. His shrine was at Ardini. The other two chief deities were Theispas of Kumenu, and Shivini of Tushpa. Of all the gods of Ararat pantheon, the most inscriptions are dedicated to him. His wife was the goddess Arubani. He is portrayed as a man with or without a beard, standing on a lion. Khaldi was a warrior god whom the kings of Urartu would pray to for victories in battle. The temples dedicated to Khaldi were adorned with weapons, such as swords, spears, bow and arrows, and shields hung off the walls and were sometimes known as 'the house of weapons'.
The sun god, a son of Ḫaldi, with whom he formed the lead triad of the gods.
Selardi is a lunar goddess of Urartu. She is counterpart to the Babylonian moon god, Sin. Nicholas Adontz theorizes that "Sielardi" name is derived from "Siela," meaning "woman" or "Sister," and "Ardi" which means sun. He states that in the ancient east, the moon had been considered the sister of the sun, rather than his consort.
Theispas of Kumenu was the Araratian weather-god, notably the god of storms and thunder. He was also sometimes the god of war. He formed part of a triad along with Khaldi and Shivini. The ancient Araratian cities of Teyseba and Teishebaini were named after Theispas. He is a counterpart to the Assyrian god Adad, and the Hurrian god, Teshub. He was often depicted as a man standing on a bull, holding a handful of thunderbolts. His wife was the goddess Huba, who was the counterpart of the Hurrian goddess Hebat.
Aramazd was the chief and creator god in pre-Christian Armenian mythology, cognate with Ahura Mazda. Aramazd was regarded as a generous god of fertility, rain, and abundance, as well as the father of the other gods, including Anahit, Mihr, and Nane. Like Ahura Mazda, Aramazd was seen as the father of the other gods, rarely with a wife, though sometimes husband to Anahit or Spandaramet.
Anahit was the goddess of fertility and healing, wisdom and water in Armenian mythology. In early periods she was the goddess of war. By the 5th century BC she was the main deity in Armenia along with Aramazd.
Mihr is the deity of the light of heaven and the god of Truth in ancient Armenian mythology. The worship of Mihr was centered in a region named Derjan, a district in Upper Armenia, currently located in eastern Turkish territories. The temple dedicated to Mihr was edified in the village of Bagaritch. Despite of the fact that the Armenian Mihr was less prominent in Armenia than Mithra in Persia, Mihr is the root of many Armenian proper names such as Mihran, Mihrdat and Mehruzhan. Furthermore, the Armenian Mehian, a pagan temple has the same source. The month of February was dedicated to Mihr and it was called Mehekan. In 301 A.D. Christianity became the official religion of Armenia. Thus, the Armenian church adopted many pagan rites and ceremonies. For example, the Christian fire-festival which has pagan roots is still celebrated in February, the month dedicated to Mihr.
Cognate of the Iranian Spenta Armaiti, a daughter of Aramazd, and cthonic goddess of fertility, vineyards and the underworld. (Spandaramet was chosen by translators of some Armenian Bibles to convey the meaning of Διόνυσος) in 2 Maccabees 6:7. Sometimes called Sandaramet or Santamaret denoting a connection to the underworld unique to Armenian theology, even in Christian writings.
Cognate to either the Iranian Tir or the Babylonian Nabu. In either case, the mercurial god of wisdom, culture, and science; messenger of the gods and psychopomp. Identified with the Greek Apollo. Tir's role as psychopomp may have been absorbed from the Luwian thunder god Tarhunda, whose name had been used to translate that of the Mesopotamian underworld god Nergal. Tir's temple was located near Artashat.
Tsovinar or Nar was the Armenian goddess of water, sea, and rain. She was a fire creature, who forced the rain and hail to fall from the heavens with her fury.
Her name Tsovinar means "Nar of the sea".
Vahagn Vishapakagh was the god of fire and war worshiped anciently and historically in Armenia. Some time in his existence, he formed a "triad" with Aramazd and Anahit. Vahagn was identified with the Greek Heracles. The priests of Vahévahian temple, who claimed Vahagn as their own ancestor, placed a statue of the Greek hero in their sanctuary. In the Armenian translation of the Bible, "Heracles, worshipped at Tyr" is renamed "Vahagn". All the gods, according to the Euhemerist belief, had been living men; Vahagn likewise, was introduced within the ranks of the Armenian kings, as the son of Yervand (6th century B.C.), together with his brothers — Bab and Tiran. Historian Khorenatsi's report of an ancient song gives a clue to his nature and origin: Ancient Armenian origin of Vahagn's birth song. Other parts of the song, now lost, said that Vahagn fought and conquered dragons, hence his title Vishabakagh, "dragon reaper", where dragons in Armenian lore are identified as "Vishaps". He was invoked as a god of courage, later identified with Herakles. He was also a sun-god, rival of Baal-shamin and Mihr. The Vahagnian song was sung to the accompaniment of the lyre by the bards of Goghten, long after the conversion of Armenia to Christianity. The stalk or reed, key to the situation, is an important word in Indo-European mythology, in connection with fire in its three forms. Vahagn was linked to Verethragna, the hypostasis of victory in the texts of the Avesta; the name turned into Vahagn, later on to take the form of Vahagn. See Վահագն for more on the origin of the name. The Armenian princely house of Vahevunis believed to derive from Vahagn. The Vahevunis were ranked high in the Royal Registrar of Armenia, recorded by King Valarshak. In the pre-Christian Armenia, the Vahevunis hereditarily possessed the temple town of Ashtishat on the left bank of the Aratzani river and most likelly also held the post of the Sparapet, i.e.t he Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Armenian Army.
In the earliest prehistoric period Astghig, commonly referred to as Asya, Astghik, or Astlik, (Armenian: Աստղիկ) had been worshipped as the Armenian pagan deity of fertility and love , later the skylight had been considered her personification, and she had been the wife or lover of Vahagn. In the later heathen period she became the goddess of love, maidenly beauty, and water sources and springs. The Vartavar festival devoted to Astghik that had once been celebrated in mid July was transformed into the Christian holiday of the Transfiguration of Christ, and is still celebrated by the Armenians. As in pre-Christian times, on the day of this fest the people release doves and sprinkle water on each other with wishes of health and good luck. With Aramazd, the father of all deities, the creator of heaven and earth, and Anahit that had been worshiped as Great Lady and Mother Deity, she forms an astral trinity in the pantheon of Armenian heathen deities. In the period of Hellenistic influence, Astghik became similar to the Greek Aphrodite and the Mesopotamian Ishtar. Her name is the diminutive of Armenian աստղ astġ, meaning "star", which through Proto-Indo-European *h₂stḗr is cognate to Sanskrit stṛ, Avestan star, Pahlavi star, Persian sitara´, Pashto storai, Latin and Italian stella and astro, French astre, Spanish astro, German stern, English star, etc. Her principal seat was in Ashtishat, located to the North from Mush, where her chamber was dedicated to the name of Vahagn, the personification of a sun-god, her lover or husband according to popular tales, and had been named "Vahagn's bedroom". Other temples and places of worship of Astghik had been located in various towns and villages, such as the mountain of Palaty, in Artamet, etc. The unique monuments of prehistoric Armenia, "višap" vishaps (Arm. višap 'serpent, dragon') or "dragon stones", spread in many provinces of historical Armenia - Gegharkunik, Aragatsotn, Javakhk, Tayk, etc., and are another manifastation of her worship.
Barsamin was a weather or sky god among the pre-Christian Armenians. He is probably derived from the Semitic god Baal Shamin.
Nane (Armenian: Նանե) was an Armenian pagan mother goddess. She was the goddess of war, wisdom, and motherhood, and the daughter of the supreme god Aramazd. Nane looked like a young beautiful woman in the clothing of a warrior, with spear and shield in hand, like the Greek Athena, with whom she identified in the Hellenic period. In Armenia and other countries, the name Nane continues to be used as a personal name.
Al (Armenian: Ալ or Ալք) is a class of demon in the folklore of the Caucasus, Iran, Central Asia, Armenia and southern parts of Russia. Als are demons of childbirth, interfering with human reproduction. The al is known by various other names, including alk in Armenian and Kurdish, ol, hāl and xāl in Tajikistan and Afghanistan, almasti or albasti in Central Asian Turkic speaking countries, and halmasti among the Dards.
The oldest gods in the Armenian pantheon, Aralez are dog-like creatures with powers to resuscitate fallen warriors and resurrect the dead by licking wounds clean.
Daeva is an Avestan language term for a particular sort of supernatural entity with disagreeable characteristics. In the Gathas, the oldest texts of the Zoroastrian canon, the daevas are "wrong gods" or "false gods" or "gods that are (to be) rejected". This meaning is - subject to interpretation - perhaps also evident in the Old Persian "daiva inscription" of the 5th century BCE. In the Younger Avesta, the daevas are noxious creatures that promote chaos and disorder. In later tradition and folklore, the dēws are personifications of every imaginable evil. Daeva, the Iranian language term, should not be confused with the devas of Indian religions. While the word for the Vedic spirits and the word for the Zoroastrian entities are etymologically related, their function and thematic development is altogether different. The once-widespread notion that the radically different functions of Iranian daeva and Indic deva represented a prehistoric inversion of roles is no longer followed in 21st century academic discourse. Equivalents for Avestan daeva in Iranian languages include Pashto, Balochi, Kurdish dêw, Persian dīv/deev, all of which apply to demons, monsters, and other villainous creatures. The Iranian word was borrowed into Old Armenian as dew, Georgian as devi, in Tajik as dev, and Urdu as deo, with the same negative associations in those languages. In English, the word appears as daeva, div, deev, and in the 18th century fantasy novels of William Thomas Beckford as dive.
The Shahapet were usually friendly guardian spirits who typically appeared in the form of serpents. They inhabited houses, orchards, fields, forests and graveyards, among other places. The Shvaz type was more agriculturally oriented, while the Shvod was a guardian of the home. A Shvod who is well-treated may reward the home's inhabitants with gold, but if mistreated might cause strife and leave.
The Nhang was a river-dwelling serpent-monster with shape shifting powers, often connected to the more conventional Armenian dragons. The creature could change into a seal or lure a man by transforming into a woman, then drag in and drown the victim to drink its blood. The word "Nhang" is sometimes used as a generic term for a sea-monster in ancient Armenian literature.
The Piatek is a large mammalian creature similar to a wingless griffin.
Pahapan Hreshtak
Guardian Angels. They were originally condidered beasts of fury considered to be feared, but because of the Persian influence, they were considered guardian angels.
Ara the Beautiful (Armenian: Արա Գեղեցիկ) is a legendary Armenian patriarch. In Armenian mythology, Ara was a warrior whose handsomeness drew marriage proposals from queen Semiramis. When Ara rejected Semiramis due to his marriage to Nvard, Semiramis sent soldiers to kill Ara and bring his body to her, where she prayed for his eventual resurrection. Ara was descended from Hayk.
Slayer of the giant Barsamin, possibly originally a war god known as Aremenius.
Legendary forefather of the Armenian people, who lead a successful rebellion against a Babylonian king named Bel. When Bel and his armies pursued Hayk and his people, Hayk fired an arrow across the battle field, killing Bel and scaring off his forces.
Ervaz and Yervant
Mythical twins born from a woman of the Arsacid Dynasty of Armenia, distinguished by enormous features and over-sensitivity.
A pre-Christian Armenian mythological character identified with John the Baptist after the adoption of Christianity by the Armenians. Karapet is usually represented as a glittering long-haired thunder-god with a purple crown and a cross.
Nimrod, king of Shinar, was, according to the Book of Genesis and Books of Chronicles, the son of Cush and great-grandson of Noah. He is depicted in the Bible as a mighty in the earth and a mighty hunter. Extra-biblical traditions associating him with the Tower of Babel led to his reputation as a king who was rebellious against God. Since Accad, was destroyed and lost with the destruction of its Empire in the period 2200-2154 BCE, the stories mentioning Nimrod seem to recall the late Early Bronze Age. The association with Erech, a city that lost its prime importance around 2,000 BCE as a result of struggles between Isin, Larsa and Elam, also attests the early provenance of the stories of Nimrod. Several Mesopotamian ruins were given Nimrod's name by 8th-century Arabs, including the ruins of the Assyrian city of Kalhu, built by Shalmaneser I. A number of attempts to connect him with historical figures have been made.
Sanasar and Baghdasar
Two brothers whom founded the town of Sassoon, ushering in the eponymous state. Sanasar was considered the ancestor of several generations of heroes of Sassoon.
A hero, associated with pre-Christian myths, later identified with Christian saints who bore the same name. He is represented as a tall, slender, handsome knight mounted upon a white horse. Sarkis is able to raise the wind, storms and blizzards, and turn them against enemies.
For ancient Greeks Semiramis (Armenian: Շամիրամ) was the legendary queen of King Ninus, succeeding him to the throne of Assyria. The legends narrated by Diodorus Siculus, Justin and others from Ctesias of Cnidus describe her and her relationship to King Ninus, himself a mythical king of Assyria, not attested in the Assyrian King List. The name of Semiramis came to be applied to various monuments in Western Asia and Asia Minor, the origin of which was forgotten or unknown. Nearly every stupendous work of antiquity by the Euphrates or in Iran seems to have ultimately been ascribed to her, even the Behistun Inscription of Darius. Herodotus ascribes to her the artificial banks that confined the Euphrates and knows her name as borne by a gate of Babylon. However, Diodorus stresses that the Hanging Gardens of Babylon were built long after Semiramis had reigned and not in her time. Various places in Assyria and throughout Mesopotamia as a whole, Media, Persia, the Levant, Asia Minor, Arabia, and the Caucasus bore the name of Semiramis, but slightly changed, even in the Middle Ages, and an old name of the city of Van was Shamiramagerd. A real and historical Shammuramat was the Assyrian queen of Shamshi-Adad V, king of Assyria and ruler of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, and its regent for five years until her son Adad-nirari III came of age. The indigenous Assyrians of Iraq, northeast Syria, southeast Turkey and northwest Iran still use Semiramis as a name for female children.
Abandinus is represented in Britain on a single altarstone. He is unknown throughout the rest of the Roman Empire and is therefore thought to have been a local god of the Roman fort at Godmanchester in Cambridgeshire, possibly associated with either a natural spring or a stream in the neighbourhood
Abellio (also Abelio and Abelionni) was a god worshipped in the Garonne Valley in Gallia Aquitania (now southwest France), known primarily by a number of inscriptions which were discovered at Comminges. He may have been a god of apple trees.
Alaunus or Alaunius was a Gaulish god of healing and prophecy. His name is known from inscriptions found in Lurs, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence in southern France and in Mannheim in western Germany. In the latter inscription, Alaunus is used as an epithet of Mercury
Alisanus was not very well depicted in mythology, so we don't have much information on him. The root Alisa- of the name Alisanus is phonologically comparable to the Proto-Celtic *alisā, 'alder'. Green, however, sees the theonym as related to the toponym Alesia, implying that he was a mountain-god.
In Gallo-Roman religion, Ambisagrus was a Gaulish god worshipped at Aquileia in Cisalpine Gaul, where he was identified with Jupiter Optimus Maximus. In other words, the god of lightning, thunder, etc.
Anextiomarus is a Celtic epithet of the sun-god Apollo recorded in a Romano-British inscription from South Shields, England. The form is a variant of Anextlomarus 'Great protector', a divine style or name attested in a fragmentary Gallo-Roman dedication from Le Mans, France. Anextlomarus is also attested as a Gaulish man's father's name at Langres, and a feminine divine form, Anextlomara, appears in two other Gallo-Roman dedications from Avenches, Switzerland.
Ankou is a personification of death in Breton mythology as well as in Cornish and Norman French folklore.
Atepomarus in Celtic Gaul was a healing god. Mauvières (Indre), Apollo was associated with this god in the form Apollo Atepomarus.
In Gallo-Roman religion, Arvernus was an epithet of the Gaulish Mercury. Although the name refers to the Arverni, in whose territory Mercury had at important sanctuary at the Puy-de-Dôme, all of the inscriptions to Mercury Arvernus are found farther away along the Rhenish frontier. The name is also recorded once as Mercury Arvernorix, 'king of the Arverni'. Compare also the title Mercury Dumiatis ('of the Puy-de-Dôme'), found in the territory of the Arverni. The name, like the name of the Arverni and of Auvergne, appears to derive from a Proto-Celtic compound adjective *φara-werno-s 'in front of alders.'
Arausio was a local Celtic water god who gave his name to the town of Arausio (Orange) in southern Gaul, as attested to by ancient inscriptions. The modern name of both the city and the family that established itself there, the House of Orange-Nassau, is a corrupted version of Celtic word Arausio. In the Middle Ages the name of the city was conflated in French and Late Latin with another word, orange.
Manannan mac Lir
Manannán mac Lir, or simply Manannán, is a sea deity in Irish mythology. He is the son of the obscure Lir (in Irish the name is "Lear", meaning "Sea"; "Lir" is the genitive form of the word). He is often seen as a psychopomp, and has strong affiliations with Tír na nÓg (the Irish Otherworld), the weather and the mists between the worlds. He is associated with both the Tuatha Dé Danann and the Fomorians. Manannán figures widely in Irish literature, and appears also in Scottish and Manx legend. He is cognate with the Welsh figure Manawydan fab Llŷr.
In Celtic mythology, Belatucadros or Belatucadrus, was a deity worshipped in northern Britain, particularly in Cumberland and Westmorland. He may be related to Belenus and Cernunnos, and was equated in the Roman period with Mars. He appears to have been worshipped by lower-ranked Roman soldiers as well as by Britons. Belatucadros is known from approximately 28 inscriptions in the vicinity of Hadrian's Wall, England. The spelling of the god's name varies a great deal, and dedications to Balatocadrus, Balatucadrus, Balaticaurus, Balatucairus, Baliticaurus, Belatucairus, Belatugagus, Belleticaurus, Blatucadrus and Blatucairus are generally accepted as variants of Belatucadros. The most common of these forms is Belatucadrus, which as a result is the name generally used in modern writings. In five of these inscriptions, Belatucadros is equated with the Roman god Mars as Mars Belatucadrus. The altars dedicated to Belatucadros were usually small, simple and plain, leading to the suggestion that this god was mainly worshipped by people of low social status. The name is frequently glossed as 'fair shining one' or 'fair slayer' presumably because the first syllable of the name is analogous to the reconstructible Proto-Celtic element belo- 'bright.' This element is reconstructed as belo- for Proto-Celtic in the Proto-Celtic lexicon. The element is linked to the Indo-European root bhel- 'shine'. However, a cursory glance at the Proto-Celtic lexicon reveals that belatu- is reconstructible for Proto-Celtic with the meaning 'death' and that kadro- is a reconstructible element meaning 'decorated.' So the name Belatucadros may also be interpreted as a compound of two Gallic words descended from two Proto-Celtic elements belatu- and *kadro- which together as a compound adjective would literally mean '[the] death-decorated [one].' Indeed, this is hardly an original proposal for the meaning of the name of this god associated with Mars: MacCulloch as early as 1911 (p135) glossed this god's name as 'comely in slaughter'. So 'fair shining one' or 'fair slayer' is not the only gloss acceptable for this theonym.
Belenus (also Belenos, Belinus, Bel, Beli Mawr) is a Sun God from Celtic Mythology and, in the third century, the patron deity of the Italian city of Aquileia. Called the "Fair Shining One," (or The Shining God) he was one of the most ancient and most widely worshiped Celtic deities and is associated with the ancient fire festival and modern Sabbat Beltane. He was associated with the horse (as shown by the clay horse figurine offerings at Belenos' Sainte-Sabine shrine in Burgundy) and also the Wheel. Perhaps like Apollo - whom he became identified with in the Augustan History - Belenos was thought to ride the Sun across the sky in a horse-drawn chariot.
In Lusitanian and Celtic polytheism, Borvo (also Bormo, Bormanus, Bormanicus, Borbanus, Boruoboendua, Vabusoa, Labbonus or Borus) was a healing deity associated with bubbling spring water.
In Lusitanian and Celtic polytheism, Borrum was a god of the winds.
In Gallo-Roman religion, Buxenus was an epithet of the Gaulish Mars, known from a single inscription found in Velleron in the Vaucluse. He was a god of box trees.
In the ancient Celtic pantheon, Camulus or Camulos was a theonym for a god whom the Romans equated with Mars by interpretatio romana. He was an important god of early Britain and Gaul, especially among the Belgae and the Remi, a Gaulish tribe who lived in the area of modern northern France, around Reims. Camulus is named in combination with Mars in inscriptions coming from Reims, Arlon, Kruishoutem, Rindern, Mainz, Bar Hill Fort near the Antonine Wall, Sarmizegetusa and Southwark, London At Rindern, Germany, Mars Camulos appears on a stone with a corona of oak. Elsewhere he was portrayed with a ram-horned head. Evidence of his popularity can be seen in several place-names notably Camulodunum. Attempts to link him with the nursery character Old King Cole and Fionn's father Cumhall have been rejected by contemporary scholars. The town Camulodunum (now Colchester) in Essex may have been named after him, and is the possible basis for the legendary city Camelot. Camulodunum is a latinised form of the Celtic Camulodunon, from the words Camulos and dunum meaning fortification, a reference to the town's extensive Iron Age earthwork defences.
Cernunnos is the conventional name given in Celtic studies to depictions of the "horned god" of Celtic polytheism. The name itself is only attested once, on the 1st-century Pillar of the Boatmen, but depictions of a horned or antlered figure, often seated cross-legged and often associated with animals and holding or wearing torcs, are known from other instances. Nothing is known about the god from literary sources, and details about his name, his cult or his significance in Celtic religion are unknown. Speculative interpretations identify him as a god of nature or fertility.
Cicolluis or Cicoluis (also known as Cicollus, Cicolus, Cicollui, and Cichol) is a god in Celtic mythology worshiped by the ancient Gaulish peoples and having a parallel in Ireland. The name is Gaulish and means "All-Breast" or "Great-Breasted" and is probably used to signify strength. In the Gallo-Roman religion, Cicolluis is thought to be a common epithet for Gaulish Mars. A Latin dedicatory inscription from Narbonne (which was in the far south of Gaul), France, bears the words MARTI CICOLLUI ET LITAVI ("Mars Cicolluis and Litavis")."Mars Cicolluis" has dedications in Xanten, Germany, and Aignay-le-Duc (where his consort is given as Litavis) and Mâlain (where his consorts are given as Litavis and Bellona, Roman goddess and personification of war) of the Côte-d'Or, France. "Cicolluis" is named alone (not as an epithet of Mars) in an inscription at Chassey, Côte-d'Or, Franche-Comté, France, and a partial inscription from Ruffey-lès-Echirey, Côte-d'Or, France, may be dedicated to Cicolluis. In Windisch, Switzerland, he is known as "Cicollus," and in Dijon, Côte-d'Or, France, he is known as "Mars Cicoluis." Cicolluis may also be compared to Cichol or Cíocal Gricenchos, the earliest-mentioned leader of the Fomorians or Fomóiri (the semi-divine initial inhabitants of Ireland) in Irish mythology. According to the seventeenth-century Irish historian Seathrún Céitinn (also known by the English name Geoffrey Keating), Cichol arrived in Ireland with fifty men and fifty women on six boats a hundred years after the Flood. There, his people lived on fish and fowl for two hundred years until Partholón and his people (who brought the plough and oxen) invaded and defeated the Fomorians in the Battle of Magh Ithe. Cicolluis's name is most likely derived from the reconstructed proto-Celtic roots k-kƒ ("breast," but also yields the insular Celtic words for "meat," such as Irish cich ["flesh"]), Welsh cig ["meat/flesh"] and flesh"] and *olyo- ("all," "whole," or "every"); this leads to the translation "All-Breast" or "Great-Breasted." This likely epithet for strength might relate with Cichol as leader of the Fomorians. Therefore, Cicolluis may have been identified with the warrior aspect of Roman Mars and may have been a protective deity.
Cissonius (also Cisonius, Cesonius) was an ancient Gaulish/Celtic god. After Visucius, Cissonius was the most common name of the Gaulish/Celtic Mercury; around seventeen inscriptions dedicated to him extend from France and Southern Germany into Switzerland. Cissonius was represented either as a bearded, helmeted man riding a ram and carrying a wine cup, or else as a young man with winged helmet and herald's staff accompanied by a rooster and goat. The name has been interpreted as meaning "courageous", "remote" or else "carriage-driver". He was probably a god of trade and protector of travellers, since Mercury exercised similar functions in the Roman pantheon.
Mars Cnabetius
Mars Cnabetius was a war god.
In Romano-British religion, Cocidius was a deity worshipped in northern Britain. The Romans equated him with Mars, god of war and hunting, and also with Silvanus, god of forests, groves and wild fields. Like Belatucadros, he was probably worshipped by lower-ranked Roman soldiers as well as Britons.
In Celtic mythology, Condatis ("waters meet") was a deity worshipped primarily in northern Britain but also in Gaul. He was associated with the confluences of rivers, in particular the River Wear which runs its course largely within County Durham. Condatis is known from several inscriptions in Britain and a single inscription found at Alonnes, Sarthe, France. In each case he is equated with the Roman god Mars. In 1886, a Roman altar was discovered near the Roman station at Chester-le-Street, where the Cong Burn joins the River Wear. The altar was buried six feet deep in soil of an alluvial character. The inscription, which was to DEO marti CONDATI, was formed by a series of punctures. The altar probably belonged to the end of the second or the beginning of the third century. A fragmentary altar bearing the Inscription MARTI CONDATI has been found in Bowes, near Barnard Castle in County Durham and another in Piercebridge, the site of a Roman fort, also in County Durham. Recently a new inscription to Condatis has been discovered at Cramond in the Lothian region of Scotland (AE 1978, 451; dedicated to d(eo) M(arti) Con[dati]). In Roman times he was equated with Mars, probably in his healing function. The association with the confluence of waters would tend to link this deity with the prevalent Celtic cult of thermal waters rather than solely with war. Again, this may reflect the origins of Condatis as a protector of aberau (the confluence of waters) with his martial aspect only being predominant in the Roman world. The name Condatis is derived from condate and means 'God of the Confluence'. Names with the root 'condate' are found in place-names such as Condé sur Itan and Condat Cantal in France as well as the ancient name of Northwich in Cheshire Condate. Condate was also the Celtic name of Rennes, then the city of the Redones and now the capital of the region of Brittany.
Ialonus Contrebis
In ancient Celtic religion, Ialonus Contrebis or Ialonus or Gontrebis was a god (or perhaps two related gods) worshipped in what are now Lancashire and Provence. He is known from three dedicatory inscriptions. One, at Lancaster, was dedicated (in the dative) to Deo Ialono Contre Sanctissimo ("to the holiest god Ialonus Contre[bis]"); another, at Overborough in Kirkby Lonsdale, to Deo San Gontrebi ("to the holy god Gontrebis"). In the third inscription, found at Nîmes in Provence, Ialonus was invoked in conjunction with the goddess Fortune.
Dii Casses
In ancient Celtic religion, Dii Casses was the god of refuse.
Dis Pater
Dis Pater, or Dispater was a Roman god of the underworld, later subsumed by Pluto or Hades. Originally a chthonic god of riches, fertile agricultural land, and underground mineral wealth, he was later commonly equated with the Roman deities Pluto and Orcus, becoming an underworld deity. Dis Pater was commonly shortened to simply Dis. This name has since become an alternative name for the underworld or a part of the underworld, such as the Dis of The Divine Comedy. It is often thought that Dis Pater was also a Celtic god. This confusion arises from the second-hand citation of one of Julius Caesar's comments in his Commentaries on the Gallic Wars VI:18, where he says that the Gauls all claimed descent from Dis Pater. This, however, is of course an example of interpretatio romana: what Caesar meant was that the Gauls all claimed descent from a Gaulish god similar to the Roman Dis Pater, that is, a chthonic deity associated with prosperity and fertility. Different possible candidates exist for this role in Celtic religion, such as Gaulish Sucellus, Irish Donn and Welsh Beli Mawr, among others.
In Gallo-Roman religion, Fagus was a god known from four inscriptions found in the Hautes-Pyrénées. The language of this Aquitanian region has been linked to Proto-Basque, rather than to Celtic. Fāgus is Latin for beech.
Genii Cucullati
The Hooded Spirits or Genii Cucullati are figures found in religious sculpture across the Romano-Celtic region from Britain to Pannonia, depicted as "cloaked scurrying figures carved in an almost abstract manner" (Henig, 62). They are found with a particular concentration in the Rhineland (Hutton). In Britain they tend to be found in a triple deity form, which seems to be specific to the British representations (De la Bedoyère). The hooded cape was especially associated with Gauls or Celts during the Roman period. The hooded health god was known as Telesphorus specifically and may have originated as a Greco-Gallic syncretism with the Galatians in Anatolia in the 3rd century BC. The religious significance of these figures is still somewhat unclear, since no inscriptions have been found with them in this British context (De la Bedoyère). There are, however, indications that they may be fertility spirits of some kind. Ronald Hutton argues that in some cases they are carrying shapes that can be seen as eggs, symbolizing life and rebirth, while Graham Webster has argued that the curved hoods are similar in many ways to contemporary Roman curved phallus stones. However, several of these figures also seem to carry swords or daggers, and Henig discusses them in the context of warrior cults. Guy de la Bédoyère also warns against reading too much in to size differences or natures in the figures, which have been used to promote theories of different roles for the three figures, arguing that at the skill level of most of the carvings, small differences in size are more likely to be hit-and-miss consequences, and pointing out that experimental archaeology has shown hooded figures one of the easiest sets of figures to carve.
In the Celtic polytheism of classical antiquity, Grannus (also Granus Mogounus Amarcolitanus) was a deity associated with spas, healing thermal and mineral springs, and the sun. He was regularly identified with Apollo as Apollo Grannus. His worship was not infrequently in conjunction with Sirona, Mars and other deities.
Dea Icaunis
In Gallo-Roman religion, Dea Icaunis was the goddess of the river Yonne in Gaul. The river was in the northern part of the country. The reason there is not much information on this deity is because it was only known in the region near the river.
Intarabus was a Gaulish god in the pantheon of the Treveri and some neighbouring peoples. His name is known from nine inscriptions from a relatively compact area in what are now Belgium, Luxembourg, western Germany and eastern France. He may have been the tutelary deity of one of the three pagi (subdivisions) of the Treveri. In most cases, Intarabus is invoked alone - without any synthesis to a Roman deity, and without accompanying female deities. However, one inscription invokes him as Mars Intarabus, noting that a fanum and simulacrum of this god had been restored at Trier. Meanwhile, another inscription from Mackwiller in Alsace gives Intarabus the epithet Narius. An inscription at Ernzen in Germany has his name as [In] tarabus, while another from Foy-Noville (now within the town of Bastogne in Belgium), invokes Entarabus in conjunction with the Genius Ollodagus. A bronze statuette from the Foy-Noville site, identified on the base as Deo Intarabo (in the dative case), depicts the god as a beardless, long-haired man in a tunic, draped with a wolf skin. His raised right hand would presumably have held a spear or some other implement, while his left hand, extended at waist length, is now missing. The theatre at Echternach appears to have been dedicated to Intarabus, as was an aedicula at Ernzen. A silver ring engraved simply with the name Intarabo (again, in the dative case) was found at Dalheim. The name 'Intarabus' has been characterized as "etymologically obscure"; Xavier Delamarre, however, takes the name to mean entar-abus "Entre-Rivières" (between rivers).
Mars Iovantucarus was a Celtic god who was associated with the Treveran healer-god Lenus Mars at his sanctuary at Trier. The name reflects the deity's function as a protector of youth, and the temple was visited by pilgrims who often brought with them images of children, often depicting as holding pet birds as offerings to the god. At Tholey, also in Treveran territory, 'Iovantucarus' was also used as an epithet of Mercury.
Lenus was a Celtic healing god worshipped mainly in eastern Gaul, where he was almost always identified with the Roman god Mars. He was an important god of the Treveri tribe, who had large sanctuaries at medicinal springs at Trier and the Martberg by Pommern in what is now Germany. Two dedications to him are also known from southwestern Britain (Chedworth and Caerwent). Edith Wightman characterizes him as "one of the best examples of a Teutates, or god of the people, equated with Mars—protector of the tribe in battle, but also bestower of health and general good fortune" (p. 211). His sanctuary 'Am Irminenwingert' at Trier had a large temple, baths, smaller shrines and a theatre; that on the Martberg also included a large variety of buildings, probably including rooms for health-seeking pilgrims to stay. Despite his associations with healing, Lenus Mars is depicted classically as a warrior with Corinthian helmet in a bronze statuette from the Martberg. His name most often appears in inscriptions as 'Lenus Mars', rather than 'Mars Lenus' as would be expected from other most syncretized names. At Trier, Lenus Mars's divine partners were the Celtic god Ancamna and the Roman Victoria, as well as the Xulsigiae, who are perhaps water nymphs. An inscription from Kaul in Luxembourg appears to invoke Lenus Mars 'Veraudunus' along with the Celtic god Inciona. Lenus was not the only Celtic god identified with Mars by the Treveri; others, such as Iovantucarus (apparently a protector of youth), Intarabus, Camulos, and Loucetios were identified with Mars and perhaps, by extension, with Lenus. His name occasionally appears as 'Mars Laenus'; the more usual form 'Lenus Mars' is accompanied by the epithets Arterancus and Exsobinus on one inscription each.
In Gallo-Roman religion, Loucetios (Latinized as Leucetius) was a Gallic god invariably identified with the Roman Mars. About a dozen inscriptions in his honour have been recovered, mainly from eastern Gaul, with a particular concentration among the Vangiones (a Rhenish tribe). Mars Loucetios is often accompanied by Nemetona. Inscriptions to him have also been found at Bath and Angers. The name Loucetios may be derived from the Proto-Indo-European root leuk- ("shine"). It is presumably analogous to Oscan Loucetius, "light-bringer," an epithet of Jupiter. The Gaulish and Brythonic forms likely derive from Proto-Celtic louk(k)et-, "bright, shining, flashing," hence also "lightning," in reference to either a Celtic commonplace metaphor between battles and thunderstorms
Lugus was a deity of the Celtic pantheon. His name is rarely directly attested in inscriptions, but his importance can be inferred from place names and ethnonyms, and his nature and attributes are deduced from the distinctive iconography of Gallo-Roman inscriptions to Mercury, who is widely believed to have been identified with Lugus, and from the quasi-mythological narratives involving his later cognates, Irish Lugh Lámhfhada (Lugh of the Long Arm) and Welsh Lleu Llaw Gyffes (Lleu of the Skillful Hand). It is possible that Lugus was a triune god, comprising Esus, Toutatis and Taranis, the three chief deities mentioned by Lucan.
In Gallo-Roman religion, Luxovios, Latinized as Luxovius was the god of the waters of Luxeuil, worshipped in Gaul. He was also a consort of Bricta.
In ancient Celtic religion, Maponos or Maponus ("Great Son") is a god of youth known mainly in northern Britain but also in Gaul. In Roman times he was equated with Apollo. The Welsh mythological figure Mabon ap Modron is apparently derived from Maponos, who by analogy we may suggest was the son of the mother-goddess Dea Matrona. The Irish god Aengus, also known as the Mac Óg ("young son"), is probably related to Maponos, as are the Arthurian characters Mabuz and Mabonagrain.
Unfortunatly, this deity was not very well depicted, so we had to take a guess on this deity, and because his name in Gaul means "might", we believe that he is the god of strength, numbers, and might.
This deity was not very widely known, but was known in some places, so I must add him. He was a badger deity, god of healing and prosperity.
The god of money, wealth, and fertility.
Nodens (Nudens, Nodons) is a Celtic deity associated with healing, the sea, hunting and dogs. He was worshipped in ancient Britain, most notably in a temple complex at Lydney Park in Gloucestershire, and possibly also in Gaul. He is equated with the Roman gods Mars, Mercury, Neptune and Silvanus, and his name is cognate with that of the Irish mythological figure Nuada and the Welsh Nudd.
Ogmios (also known as Ogmius) was the Celtic deity of eloquence. He looked like an older version of Heracles who would use his powers of persuasion to bind men to himself.
Robor was a Gaulish god of Oak Trees.
In ancient Celtic religion, Rudianos was a war god worshiped in Gaul. In Roman times he was equated with Mars. He was invoked at Saint-Andéol-en-Quint and Rochefort-Samson (Drôme), and at Saint-Michel-de-Valbonne. The name "Rudianos" means red, reflecting the warlike nature of the god. At Saint-Michel-de-Valbonne there was also found a prehistoric image of a mounted war-god, dating to the 6th Century BC, who could perhaps be Rudianos himself. The menhir-shaped stone depicts a roughly incised figure of a horseman, with an enormous head, riding down five severed heads. The iconography is evocative of the head-hunting exploits of the Celts, who hung the heads of their battle victims from their saddles, according to classical writers.
In Gallo-Roman religion, Segomo ("victor, mighty one") was a war god worshipped in Gaul. In Roman times he was equated with Mars and Hercules. He may be related to Cocidius, a similar god worshipped in Britain. He is commonly associated with the eagle or hawk. The name of the legendary High King of Ireland Nia Segamain, which translates as "sister's son or champion of Segamon", may be related.
In Gallo-Roman religion, Smertrios or Smertrius was a god of war worshipped in Gaul and Noricum. In Roman times he was equated with Mars. His name contains the same root as that of the goddess Rosmerta and may mean "The Purveyor" or "The Provider", a title rather than a true name. Smertulitanus may be a variant name for the same god. Smertrius is one of the Gaulish gods depicted on the Pillar of the Boatmen, discovered in Paris. Here is depicted as a well-muscled bearded man confronting a snake which rears up in front of him. The god brandishes an object which has usually been interpreted as a club but which rather resembles a torch or firebrand. The normal interpretation of the god's attribute as a club has led to the identification, by modern scholars, of Smertrius and Hercules. Other evidence links Smertrius with the Celtic version of Mars: at Mohn near Trier, a spring sanctuary was dedicated to Mars Smertrius and his consort Ancamna. Coins found here indicate that there was a shrine here before the Roman period. Another Treveran inscription links Mars and Smertrius. Smertrius himself is known outside Gaul, for example on a fragmentary inscription at Grossbach in Austria.
In ancient Celtic religion, Sucellus or Sucellos was a god depicted in Gallo-Roman art as carrying a hammer or mallet and also a bowl or barrel. He has been associated with agriculture or wine production. He was the deity of love and time.
In Celtic mythology Taranis was the god of thunder worshipped essentially in Gaul, Gallaecia, Britain and Ireland, but also in the Rhineland and Danube regions, amongst others. Taranis, along with Esus and Toutatis as part of a sacred triad, was mentioned by the Roman poet Lucan in his epic poem Pharsalia as a Celtic deity to whom human sacrificial offerings were made. Taranis was associated, as was the cyclops Brontes ("thunder") in Greek mythology, with the wheel.
Gundestrup cauldron, created between 200 BC and 300 AD, is thought to have a depiction of Taranis on the inner wall of cauldron on tile C. Many representations of a bearded god with a thunderbolt in one hand and a wheel in the other have been recovered from Gaul, where this deity apparently came to be syncretised with Jupiter. The name as recorded by Lucan is unattested epigraphically, but variants of the name include the forms Tanarus, Taranucno-, Taranuo-, and Taraino-. The name is continued in Irish as Tuireann, and is likely connected with those of Germanic (Norse Thor, Anglo-Saxon Þunor, German Donar) and Sami (Horagalles) gods of thunder. Taranis is likely associated with the Gallic Ambisagrus (likely from Proto-Celtic *ambi-sagros = "about-strength"), and in the interpretatio romana with Jupiter.
Toutatis or Teutates was a Celtic god worshipped in ancient Gaul and Britain. On the basis of his name's etymology, he has been widely interpreted to be a tribal protector. Today, he is best known under the name Toutatis (pronounced [towˈtaːtis] in Gaulish) through the Gaulish oath/catchphrase "By Toutatis!", invented for the Asterix comics by Goscinny and Uderzo. The spelling Toutatis, however, is authentic and attested by about ten ancient inscriptions. Under the spelling Teutates, the god is also known from a passage in Lucan. The name "Teutates" is derived from the stem teutā-, meaning "people" or "tribe", cognate with the Germanic *þeudō. Which brings us to believe he was a tribal god.
Tridamos (also Tridamus) is the male deification of supposed bovine triplication in ancient Celtic polytheism, conceived as a manifestation of abundance. Tridamos was worshipped in Roman Britain, and altar-stones raised to him have been recovered in the United Kingdom, such as at Michaelchurch. Parallels can be drawn between this deity and Tarvos Trigaranos.
Veteris (commonly spelled Vitiris, Vheteris, Huetiris, and Hueteris) was a Celtic god attested from many inscriptions in Roman Britain. The dedicants were usually private individuals and were exclusively male. During the 3rd Century AD the cult was particularly popular among the ranks of the Roman army. Veteris' name was never linked with that of any of the Classical gods, but he was invoked with another local god, Mogons, at Netherby.
Virotutis is a Celtic epithet of the god Apollo. The epithet has been interpreted as meaning "Benefactor of humanity". Apollo Virotutis was worshipped at, among other places, Fins d'Annecy (Haute-Savoie) and at Jublains (Maine-et-Loire). He was a sun god.
Visucius was a Gallo-Roman god, usually identified with Mercury. He was worshipped primarily in the east of Gaul, around Trier and on the Rhine; his name is recorded on about ten dedicatory inscriptions. One such inscription has also been found in Bordeaux. Visucius is, along with Gebrinius and Cissonius, among the most common indigenous epithets of the Gaulish Mercury. The name has sometimes been interpreted as meaning "of the ravens" or "knowledgeable"; cf. the Proto-Celtic roots wesāko- 'raven, grebe' (cf. Old Irish disyllabic fiach, Welsh gwyach) and *witsu- 'knowing'. The variant or mistaken spelling Visuclus is also attested. In a Latin inscription from Rheinzabern, Germany (CIL 13, 5991) dedicated to Jupiter, Apollo, and Visucius, the name SOLI T appears after Visucius, perhaps originally standing for Solitumarus, an epithet of Mercury's in an inscription (AE 2001, 1388; AE 2008, 901) found at Chateaubleau, France. Another inscription is co-dedicated to Sancta Visucia, as well as to Mercurius Visucius. This goddess, apparently a companion or analogue of Visucius, has sometimes been likened to Rosmerta or Maia, who also accompany Mercury on many Gaulish dedications. One inscription dedicated to Visugius has also been found at Agoncillo in Spain; this may perhaps refer to the same deity. He was known as the messenger of the gods.
An epithet of Vindonnus may have been Belenus. Apollo Vindonnus had a temple at Essarois near Châtillon-sur-Seine in Burgundy. The sanctuary was based on a curative spring. Part of the temple pediment survives, bearing an inscription to the god and to the spirit of the springs and, above it, the head of a radiate sun-deity. Many votive objects were brought to the shrine, some of oak, and some of stone.
Vinotonus is a god from Celtic Mythology of which little is known. Only seven altars dedicated to Vinotonus have been found, all of which are on the Yorkshire Moors. As is common in Celtic Mythology, it is possible that Vinotonus was a local deity of Yorkshire. His name may mean "God of the Vines", and it is estimated that he may have been worshipped until about the 5th century AD. Romans found Vinotonus to be equivalent to Silvanus and that he was a wilderness god. It was common for the Romans to assign local deities of the Celts the names of popular Roman gods. Silvanus is also equated with the Celtic god Callirius, of whom little is known as well. It is possible that many local nature deities of the Celts were grouped under the name of Silvanus to the Romans, as is the case with Vinotonus.
Vosegus (sometimes Vosagus or Vosacius) was a name used in the Roman Empire for a Celtic god of hunting and forestation. On rare known artifacts Vosegus is shown with a bow and shield, accompanied by a dog. The centre of area where Vosegus was worshiped was around the Donon. On top of a hill there was a temple dedicated to Vosegus.
Abnoba is a name with theological and geographical meanings: It is the name of a Gaulish goddess who was worshipped in the Black Forest and surrounding areas. It is also the name of a mountain or mountain range.
In Celtic mythology, Adsullata was a river goddess of the Continental Celts associated with the River Savus (Sava) in Noricum. This deity is known from a single inscription found at Saudörfel, Austria. Later she came to Brittany from Celtic Gaul and was believed to be a goddess of hot springs and the origin of the Anglo-Celtic sun goddess, Sul.
Erecura (also found as Herecura, Aerecura, Eracura) was a goddess worshipped in ancient times, often thought to be Celtic in origin, mostly represented with the attributes of Proserpina and associated with the Roman underworld god Dis Pater. She appears with the latter in a statue found at Oberseebach, Switzerland and in several magical texts from Austria, once in the company of Cerberus, another, probably, with Ogmios. A further inscription to her has been found near Stuttgart, Germany. She may originally have been an earth goddess, associated with such attributes of fertility as the cornucopia and apple baskets; she may also have been associated with Silvanus and the Rhine Valley. Green describes Aericura as a 'Gaulish Hecuba.' Representations of Erecura are most commonly found in the Danubian area of Southern Germany and Slovenia, but they also occur in Italy, Great Britain, and France. Her inscriptions are concentrated in Stuttgart and along the Rhine. A male deity called Arecurius or Aericurus is named on an altar-stone in Northumberland, England.
Agronā is the reconstructed Proto-Celtic name for the river Aeron in Wales. The river's name literally means 'carnage'. It is hypothesized that there may have been an eponymous river-goddess associated with strife or war.
In Gallo-Roman religion, Ancamna was a goddess worshipped particularly in the valley of the Moselle River. She was commemorated at Trier and Ripsdorf as the consort of Lenus Mars, and at Möhn as the consort of Mars Smertulitanus. At Trier, altars were set up in honour of Lenus Mars, Ancamna and the genii of various pagi of the Treveri, giving the impression of Lenus Mars and Ancamna as tribal protectors honoured in an officially organized cult. Among the few statuettes left as votive offerings left at the sanctuary of Mars Smertulitanus and Ancamna at Möhn is one of a genius cucullatus like those offered to the Xulsigiae at the Lenus Mars temple complex in Trier. Inciona is also apparently invoked along with Lenus Mars Veraudunus on a bronze ex voto from Luxembourg; it is unclear what connection, if any, exists between Inciona and Ancamna. Jufer and Luginbühl link Ancamna with two other consorts of the Gaulish Mars, Litavis and Nemetona, noting that none of these appear to be warrior goddesses themselves; instead, they suggest that Ancamna might have been associated with a spring. Edith Wightman considers the couple Mars Loucetius and Nemetona to be "closely similar to if not identical with, Lenus and Ancamna".
Ancasta was a Celtic goddess worshipped in Roman Britain. She is known from a single dedicatory inscription found in the United Kingdom at the Roman settlement of Clausentum (Bitterne, near Southampton). Ancasta may be taken to be a local goddess, possibly associated with the nearby River Itchen.
In Celtic polytheism, Andarta was a warrior goddess worshipped in southern Gaul. Inscriptions to her have been found in southern France and in Bern, Switzerland. She may be related to the goddess Andate, identified with Victory in Britain according to Roman historian Cassius Dio. Like the similar goddess Artio, she may have been associated with the bear.
Andraste, also known as Andrasta or Andred, was, according to the Roman historian Dio Cassius, an Icenic war goddess invoked by Boudica in her fight against the Roman occupation of Britain in AD 60. She may be the same as Andate, mentioned later by the same source, and described as "their name for Victory": i.e., the goddess Victoria. Thayer asserts that she may be related to Andarta also. The goddess Victoria is related to Nike, Bellona, Magna Mater (Great Mother), Cybele, and Vacuna—goddesses who are often depicted on chariots.
In Celtic mythology, Arduinna (also Arduina, Arduinnae or Arduinne) was the eponymous goddess of the Ardennes Forest and region, represented as a huntress riding a boar (primarily in the present-day regions of Belgium and Luxembourg). Her cult originated in what is today known as Ardennes, a region of Belgium, Luxembourg and France. She was later assimilated into the Gallo-Roman mythology of goddess Diana.
Matronae Aufaniae
The Matronae Aufaniae (or Matres Aufaniae or Deae Aufaniae) were one name for Celtic mother goddesses (Matronae) worshipped throughout Celtic Europe. They are known only from inscriptions and reliefs and they appear to have been found mainly in the German Rhineland.
Arnemetia was a goddess in Romano-British religion. Her shrine was at Aquae Arnemetiae ("waters of Arnemetia"), which is now Buxton in Derbyshire, England. Arnemetia's name contains Celtic elements "are," meaning "against, beside," and nemeton, meaning "sacred grove." Her name is thus interpreted as "she who dwells in the sacred grove," suggesting Arnemetia may be a divine epithet rather than a name in its own right.
Artio (Dea Artio in the Gallo-Roman religion) was a Celtic bear goddess. Evidence of her worship has notably been found at Bern. Her name is derived from the Celtic word for "bear", artos.
Laspeyria is a genus of moths of the Erebidae family.
Dea Aveta
In Gallo-Roman religion, Dea Aveta was a mother goddess, also associated with the fresh-water spring at Trier in what is now Germany. Aveta is known mainly from clay figurines found at Toulon-sur-Allier in France and at Trier. These figurines show the goddess with infants at the breast, small lap-dogs, or baskets of fruit. There was a temple dedicated to Aveta in the Altbachtal complex at Trier. Her name is also known from inscriptions found in Switzerland, and the Côte-d'Or (France).
In Celtic polytheism, Belisama (epigraphically Bηλησαμα) was a goddess worshipped in Gaul. She is identified with Minerva in the interpretatio romana. The etymology of her name has been taken to translate to "brightest one", i.e. containing a superlative suffix -isama attached to the root bel "bright"; based on this she has also been speculatively claimed as companion of Belenus, whose name seems to contain the same root. But the root bel has also (for either deity) been interpreted differently, e.g. as bel "strong".
Brigantia was a goddess in Celtic (Gallo-Roman and Romano-British) religion of Late Antiquity. Through interpretatio Romana, she was equated with Victoria. The tales connected to the characters of Brigid and Saint Brigid in Irish mythology and legend have been argued to be connected to Brigantia although the figures themselves remain distinct.
Britannia is an ancient term for Roman Britain and also a female personification of the island. The name is Latin, and derives from the Greek form Prettanike or Brettaniai, which originally designated a collection of islands with individual names, including Albion or Great Britain; however, by the 1st century BC Britannia came to be used for Great Britain specifically. In AD 43 the Roman Empire began its conquest of the island, establishing a province they called Britannia, which came to encompass the parts of the island south of Caledonia (roughly Scotland). The native Celtic inhabitants of the province are known as the Britons. In the 2nd century, Roman Britannia came to be personified as a goddess, armed with a trident and shield and wearing a Corinthian helmet. The Latin name Britannia long survived the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, and yielded the name for the island in most European and various other languages, including the English Britain and the modern Welsh Prydain. After centuries of declining use, the Latin form was revived during the English Renaissance as a rhetorical evocation of a British national identity. Especially following the Acts of Union in 1707, which joined the Kingdoms of England and Scotland, the personification of the martial Britannia was used as an emblem of British imperial power and unity. She was featured on all modern British coinage series until the redesign in 2008, and still appears annually on the gold and silver 'Britannia' bullion coin series.
In Plutarch's On the Bravery of Women, Camma was a Galatian princess and priestess of Artemis. She was wedded to the tetrarch Sinatus, and became known and admired for her virtue and beauty. Sinatus' rival, another tetrarch named Sinorix, murdered Sinatus and proceeded to woo Camma herself. Rather than submit to Sinorix' advances, Camma took him to a temple of Artemis where she served poisoned milk and honey to herself and him. Camma died happily, according to Plutarch, in the knowledge that she had avenged the death of her husband.
In Celtic mythology, Clota was the patron goddess of the River Clyde. Perhaps worshiped by the local Welsh-speaking Damnonii tribe who held the territory which later was to become the Kingdom of Strathclyde. The Damnonii allied themselves with Rome who recorded and mapped the Clota estuary. During the Antonine period the Romans built the Antonine Wall from the Forth to the Clyde and created a causeway stretching across the 'Clota' which linked the forts at Bishopton, Greenock and Largs, to the Antonine Wall.
Coventina was a Romano-British goddess of wells and springs. She is known from multiple inscriptions at one site in Northumberland county of the United Kingdom, an area surrounding a wellspring near Carrawburgh on Hadrian's Wall. It is possible that other inscriptions, two from Hispania and one from Narbonensis, refer to Coventina, but this is disputed.
Damara was a Celtic fertility goddess
In Gallo-Roman religion, Damona was a goddess worshipped in Gaul as the consort of Apollo Borvo and of Apollo Moritasgus. Mary Jones interprets Damona's name as "Divine Cow" based on its resemblance to damos or "cow". She has sometimes been linked with the Irish goddess Boand on the basis of this bovine association. Van Andringa describes Damona and Bormana as the patron deities of the hot springs at Bourbonne-les-Bains and Saint-Vulbas, respectively. Some seventeen inscriptions dedicated to Damona have been recovered, including nine from Bourbonne-les-Bains and four from Bourbon-Lancy, both spa towns in eastern France. In one inscription from Saintes, she has the epithet Matubergini.
Dea Matrona
In Celtic mythology, Dea Matrona ("divine mother goddess") was the goddess who gives her name to the river Marne (ancient Matrŏna) in Gaul. The Gaulish theonym Mātr-on-ā signifies "great mother",and the goddess of the Marne has been interpreted to be a mother goddess. Many Gaulish religious images—including inexpensive terracottas mass-produced for use in household shrines—depict mother goddesses nursing babies and/or holding fruits, other foods, or small dogs in their laps. In many areas, such Matronae were depicted in groups of three (or sometimes two). The name of Welsh mythological figure Modron, mother of Mabon is derived from the same etymon. By analogy, Dea Matrona may conceivably have been considered the mother of the Gaulish Maponos.
In Gallo-Roman religion, Sequana was the goddess of the river Seine, particularly the springs at the source of the Seine, and the Gaulish tribe the Sequani. The springs, called the Fontes Sequanae ("The Springs of Sequana") are located in a valley in the Châtillon Plateau, to the north-west of Dijon in Burgundy, and it was here, in the 2nd or 1st century BC, that a healing shrine was established. The sanctuary was later taken over the by Romans, who built two temples, a colonnaded precinct and other related structures centred on the spring and pool. Many dedications were made to Sequana at her temple, including a large pot inscribed with her name and filled with bronze and silver models of parts of human bodies to be cured by her. Wooden and stone images of limbs, internal organs, heads, and complete bodies were offered to her in the hope of a cure, as well as numerous coins and items of jewellery. Respiratory illnesses and eye diseases were common. Pilgrims were frequently depicted as carrying offerings to the goddess, including money, fruit, or a favorite pet dog or bird.
Debranua was a Celtic goddess of speed and fat
In Gallo-Roman religion, Epona was a protector of horses, donkeys, and mules. She was particularly a goddess of fertility, as shown by her attributes of a patera, cornucopia, ears of grain and the presence of foals in some sculptures. She and her horses might also have been leaders of the soul in the after-life ride, with parallels in Rhiannon of the Mabinogion. Unusual for a Celtic deity, most of whom were associated with specific localities, the worship of Epona, "the sole Celtic divinity ultimately worshipped in Rome itself," was widespread in the Roman Empire between the first and third centuries AD.
Icovellauna was a Celtic goddess worshipped in Gaul. Her places of worship included an octagonal temple at Le Sablon in Metz, originally built over a spring, from which five inscriptions dedicated to her have been recovered; and Trier, where Icovellauna was honoured in an inscription in the Altbachtal temple complex. Both of these places lie in the valley of the Moselle river of eastern Gaul, in what are now Lorraine in France and Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany. At the temple in Metz, a spiral staircase led down to the water level, allowing worshippers to leave offerings in the spring and/or to take the waters. A statuette of a local Gaulish Mercury was among the ex-votos deposited at the shrine. Following Joseph Vendryes, Miranda Green interprets the Gaulish root ico- as 'water' and characterizes Icovellauna as a "water-goddess" who "presided over the nymphaeum at Sablon in the Moselle Basin, a thermal spring-site". Xavier Delamarre, however, considers this interpretation to be very improbable; on purely etymological grounds, he suggests that ico- might be the name of a bird, perhaps the woodpecker. The root uellauno- has been variously interpreted, though the interpretation "chief, commander" has recently found favour; see Vellaunus.
Litavis—also known as Litauis, Litaui, Litauia, and Llydaw—is a goddess in Celtic mythology worshiped by the ancient Gauls. Her name is found in inscriptions found at Aignay-le-Duc and Mâlain of the Côte-d'Or, France, where she is invoked along with the Gallo-Roman god Mars Cicolluis in a context which suggests that she might have been his consort. Also, a Latin dedicatory inscription from Narbonne (which was in the far south of Gaul), France, bears the words "MARTI CICOLLUI ET LITAVI" ("To Mars Cicolluis and Litavis").
In Gaulish religion, Nantosuelta was a goddess of nature, the earth, fire, and fertility. The Mediomatrici (Alsace, Lorraine) depicted her in art as holding a model house or dovecote on a pole. Other likely depictions show her with a pot or bee hive. Nantosuelta is attested by statues, and by inscriptions. She was sometimes paired with Sucellus.
Nemetona, or "She of the Sacred Grove," is a Celtic Goddess with roots in eastern Gaul. She is thought to have been the eponymous deity of the Germano-Celtic people known as the Nemetes; evidence of her veneration is found throughout their former territory in and around what is now Trier, Germany. She is also attested in Bath, England, where an altar to her was dedicated by a man of the Gallic Treveri people. Her name is derived from the Celtic root nemeto-, referring to sacred areas, and is related to nemeton, a term designating Gaulish religious spaces, hence her title/honorific "She of the Sacred Grove." Thus, naturally, she is a goddess and guardian of (Celtic) open air places of worship - i.e. sacred grounds/groves and circles, labyrinths, and medicine wheels. Surviving inscriptions often associate Nemetona with Mars (who was given various Celtic names depending on location). She is paired with "Loucetios Mars" in the inscription at Bath, and with Mars at Trier and Altrip. Individual inscriptions to Nemetona and Loucetios have been recovered from the same site in Klein-Winternheim. The Altrip site was further notable for yielding a terra cotta depiction of the Goddess
Ritona, also known as Pritona, is a Celtic goddess chiefly venerated in the land of the Treveri in what is now Germany. Her cult is attested at Pachten and at Trier, where she "had a carefully built little temple" in the Altbachtal complex. At Pachten her temple also had a theatre, presumably dedicated to performances of a religious nature. A single inscription also honours her at Uzès in southern France. Her name, related to the same root as Welsh rhyd 'ford', suggests that she was a goddess of fords. The variant 'Pritona' is directly attested twice: on the goddess's only inscription at Pachten (PRITONAE DIVINAE SIVE CAIONI) and in conjunction with 'Ritona' on an inscription from Trier (DEA RITONA PRITONA). 'Pritona' is also restored in a further, more fragmentary inscription from Trier (RITO/[NAE] SIVE EX IU[SSU PR]/ITONI[AE?]). Lothar Schwinden characterizes her as a mother goddess on the basis of the statue of a seated goddess found at Pachten, which he connects with the well-known local type of seated mother goddesses with dogs or babies on their laps (cf. Aveta). The Pachten inscription specifies that the goddess was invoked by an individual "for the well-being of the townsfolk of Contiomagium" (PRO SALVTE / [V]IKANORVM CONTI/OMAGIENSIVM). On two of the inscriptions from Trier, Ritona is invoked in conjunction either with the numines of the Augusti (see imperial cult) or in honour of the divine house (the imperial family).
In Gallo-Roman religion, Rosmerta was a goddess of fertility and abundance, her attributes being those of plenty such as the cornucopia. Rosmerta is attested by statues, and by inscriptions. In Gaul she was often depicted with the Roman god Mercury as her consort, but is sometimes found independently.
Goddess of the River Severn Senua
In Celtic polytheism, Sirona was a goddess worshipped predominantly in East Central Gaul and along the Danubian limes. A healing deity, she was associated with healing springs; her attributes were snakes and eggs. She was sometimes depicted with Apollo Grannus or Apollo Borvo. She was particularly worshipped by the Treveri in the Moselle Valley.
The Suleviae
In ancient Celtic religion, Sulevia was a goddess worshipped in Gaul, Britain, and Galicia, very often in the plural forms Suleviae or (dative) Sule(v)is. Dedications to Sulevia(e) are attested in about forty inscriptions, distributed quite widely in the Celtic world, but with particular concentrations in Noricum, among the Helvetii, along the Rhine, and also in Rome. Jufer and Luginbühl distinguish the Suleviae from another group of plural Celtic goddesses, the Matres, and interpret the name Suleviae as meaning "those who govern well". The Suleviae have been identified in one inscription with the Junones, but mostly with the Matres, for example on an inscription from Roman Colchester, as well as on most of the inscriptions from Rome. The Colchester inscription reads:
(Translated: To the Sulevi mothers, Similis the son of Attius, of the Civitas Cantiacorum, willingly and deservedly fulfills his vow). Van Andringa interprets the Suleviae as "native domestic divinities honoured at all social levels". For the theory that the Suleviae were a triune version of Sulis Minerva, see Sulis. This theory is disputed by some researchers who find no direct links with Sulis, and suggest instead that the similarity in names is coincidental. Another theory connects the Suleviae with the Xulsigiae, known from a site at Trier; but this suggestion has also been contested.
In localized Celtic polytheism practiced in Britain, Sulis was a deity worshipped at the thermal spring of Bath (now in Somerset). She was worshipped by the Romano-British as Sulis Minerva, whose votive objects and inscribed lead tablets suggest that she was conceived of both as a nourishing, life-giving mother goddess and as an effective agent of curses wished by her votaries.
Tamesisadda was the goddess of the River Thames.
In ancient Celtic polytheism, Verbeia was a goddess worshipped in Roman Britain. She is known from a single altar-stone dedicated to her at Ilkley (RIB 635). She is considered to have been a deification of the River Wharfe. An image of a woman (also from Ilkley) may represent the goddess: she is depicted with an overlarge head and schematic features; she wears a long, pleated robe and she has two large snakes, represented as geometric zig-zags, which she grasps, one in each hand.
Aeron was a masculine god of battle or slaughter among the early Britons. The name may be derived from that of the goddess Agrona.
In Welsh mythology, Amaethon (Welsh: Amaethon fab Dôn, meaning "Amaethon son of Dôn") was the god of agriculture, and the son of the goddess Dôn. His name means "labourer" or "ploughman", and he is cited as being responsible for the Cad Goddeu, or "Battle of Trees", between the lord of the otherworld, Arawn, and the Children of Dôn (the Welsh version of the Tuatha Dé Danann).
In Welsh mythology, Arawn was the king of the otherworld realm of Annwn, appearing prominently in the first branch, and alluded to in the fourth. In later tradition, the role of king of Annwn was largely attributed to the Welsh psychopomp, Gwyn ap Nudd.
Afallach (Old Welsh Aballac) is man's name found in several medieval Welsh genealogies, where is made the son of Beli Mawr. According to a medieval Welsh triad, Afallach was the father of the goddess Modron. The Welsh redactions of Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, Brut y Brenhinedd, associate him with Ynys Afallach, which is substituted as the Welsh name for Geoffrey's Insula Avalonsis (Island of Avalon), but this is fanciful medieval etymology and it is more likely his name derives from the Welsh word afall "apple tree" (modern Welsh afal "apple", afalllen "apple tree" cf. Proto-Celtic *aballo- "apple"); from which, granted, the name of Avalon is also often thought to derive, so that the meaning of "Afallach" is associated but not necessarily directly.
Beli Mawr
Beli Mawr (translated into English as Beli the Great) was an ancestor figure in medieval Welsh literature and genealogies. He is the father of Caswallawn, Arianrhod, Lludd Llaw Eraint, Llefelys, and Afallach. In certain medieval genealogies he is listed as the husband of Anna, cousin of the Virgin Mary. Other sources give his wife as Dôn, daughter of Mathonwy.[citation needed] According to the Welsh Triads, Beli and Dôn were the parents of Arianrhod, but the mother of Beli's other children—and the father of Dôn's other children—are not mentioned in the medieval Welsh literature. Several royal lines in medieval Wales traced their ancestry to Beli.
Brân the Blessed (Welsh: Bendigeidfran or Brân Fendigaidd, literally "Blessed Jackdaw") is a giant and king of Britain in Welsh mythology. He appears in several of the Welsh Triads, but his most significant role is in the Second Branch of the Mabinogi, Branwen ferch Llŷr. He is a son of Llŷr and Penarddun, and the brother of Brânwen, Manawydan, Nisien and Efnysien. The name "Brân" in Welsh is usually translated as crow or raven
Culhwch (Welsh pronunciation: [kʉlˈhuːχ], with the final consonant of Scottish "loch"), in Welsh mythology, is the son of Cilydd son of Celyddon and Goleuddydd, a cousin of Arthur and the main character of the story Culhwch and Olwen (the earliest of the medieval Welsh tales appended to Lady Charlotte Guest's edition of the Mabinogion). In this tale the etymology of Culhwch is explained as "sow run" (cul "narrow, a narrow thing"; hwch "sow, pig"), but this is likely to be folk etymology. According to the narrative, Culhwch is born to his maddened mother Goleuddydd after she is frightened by a herd of swine. The swineherd finds Culhwch in the pigs' run, and takes him back to his father Cilydd. Culhwch is described as being "of gentle lineage".
Dylan ail Don
Dylan ail Don (also seen in other translated languages as Dylan Eil Ton (in Middle Welsh), Dylan O'Taine, Dylan ElTon, Dylan Aldon, and Dylan Ui Dan) is a character in the Welsh mythic Mabinogion tales, particularly in the fourth tale, "Math fab Mathonwy". The story of Dylan reflects ancient Celtic myths that were handed down orally for some generations before being written down during the early Christian period by clerics. The story as it has been preserved will therefore exhibit elements and archetypes characteristic of both Celtic pagan and Christian mythologies. His name translates as "Dylan the Second Wave", referring to him as being the second born (ail don meaning "second wave") of Arianrhod.
Euroswydd is a figure in Welsh mythology, the father of Nisien and Efnysien by Penarddun, daughter of Beli Mawr. In the Second Branch of the Mabinogi Penarddun is the wife of Llŷr, by whom her children are Brân, Branwen, and Manawydan. The circumstances of Nisien and Efnysien's conception are not described, but one of the Welsh Triads mentions that Euroswydd had held Llŷr captive as one of the Three Exalted Prisoners of the Island of Britain; it is likely the traditions are connected.
Gofannon is a Middle Welsh reflex of Gobannus, one of the deities worshipped by the ancient Celts. He features in Middle Welsh literature as a great metal worker and as the son of Dôn. His name can be compared with the Old Irish gobae ~ gobann 'smith,' Middle Welsh gof ~ gofein 'smith,' Gallic gobedbi 'with the smiths,' Latin faber 'smith' and with the Lithuanian gabija 'sacred home fire' and Lithuanian gabus 'gifted, clever'. His apparent counterpart in Irish mythology, Goibniu, in addition to his duties as a smith, also takes on the role of a divine hero who brewed an ale of immortality and a wonderful architect. In Welsh mythology, Gofannon killed his nephew, Dylan Ail Don, not knowing who he was. One of the tasks given to Culhwch if he were to win the hand of Olwen was to get Gofannon to sharpen his brother Amaethon's plough.
Gwydion fab Dôn
Gwydion fab Dôn is a magician, hero and trickster of Welsh mythology, appearing most prominently in the Fourth Branch of the Mabinogi, which focuses largely on his relationship with his young nephew, Lleu Llaw Gyffes. He also appears prominently in the Welsh Triads, the Book of Taliesin and the Stanzas of the Graves. The name Gwydion (which should more properly be spelled Gwyddien in Modern Welsh, as can be adduced from its Old Welsh form Guidgen; cognate with Old Irish Fidgen) may be interpreted as "Born of Trees".
Gwyddno Garanhir
Gwyddno Garanhir was the supposed ruler of a sunken land off the coast of Wales, known as Cantre'r Gwaelod. He was the father of Elffin ap Gwyddno, the foster-father of the famous Welsh poet, Taliesin, in the legendary account given in the late medieval Chwedl Taliesin.
Gwyn ap Nudd
Gwyn ap Nudd (Welsh pronunciation: [ˈɡwɨn ap ˈnɨːð], sometimes found with the antiquated spelling Gwynn ap Nudd) is a Welsh mythological figure, the king of the Tylwyth Teg or "fair folk" and ruler of the Welsh Otherworld, Annwn. Described as a great warrior with a "blackened face", Gwyn is intimately associated with the otherworld in medieval Welsh literature, and is associated with the international tradition of the Wild Hunt.
Hafgan is one of the kings of the otherworld, Annwn, in Welsh mythology. He appears in the First Branch of the Mabinogi as the main rival of Arawn, the other king of Annwn. The dominions of the two kings sit side by side, and Hafgan is constantly warring against Arawn. In the story Pwyll, Prince of Dyfed, Pwyll, in order to gain Arawn's friendship, agrees to switch places with him for one year and one day and to battle against Hafgan in order to rid Arawn of his difficulty. Before they exchange places, Arawn gives specific instructions to Pwyll to kill him with one stroke and no more. In the past when Arawn had battled and had struck Hafgan nearly to his death, Hafgan had begged him to give another stroke, and when Arawn had done so, Hafgan recovered from his injuries and was in good health for battle again the next day.
Lleu Llaw Gyffes
Lleu Llaw Gyffes (Welsh pronunciation: [ˈɬəɨ ˈɬau ˈɡəfes], sometimes misspelled Llew Llaw Gyffes) is a hero of Welsh mythology. He appears most prominently in the Fourth Branch of the Mabinogi, the tale of Math fab Mathonwy, which tells the tale of his birth, his marriage, his death, his resurrection and his accession to the throne of Gwynedd. He is a warrior and magician, invariably associated with his uncle Gwydion. He is widely understood to be the Welsh equivalent of the Irish Lugh and the Gaulish Lugus. It has been suggested that Lleu, like Pryderi, is related to the divine son figure of Mabon ap Modron.
Lludd Llaw Eraint
Lludd Llaw Eraint, "Lludd of the Silver Hand", son of Beli Mawr, is a legendary hero from Welsh mythology. As Nudd Llaw Eraint (the earlier form of his name, cognate of the Irish Nuada Airgetlám, derived from the pre-Roman British god Nodens) he is the father of Gwyn ap Nudd. He is probably the source of king Lud from Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain.
Llŷr (Welsh: Llŷr Llediaith; Lleddiarth meaning "half-speech" or "half-language") is a figure in Welsh mythology, probably originally a deity.
Mabon ap Modron
Mabon ap Modron is a prominent figure from Welsh literature and mythology, the son of Modron and a member of Arthur's war band. Both he and his mother were likely deities in origin, descending from a divine mother-son pair. His name is related to the Romano-British god Maponos, whose name means "Great Son"; Modron, in turn, is likely related to the Gaulish goddess Dea Matrona. He is often equated with the Demetian hero Pryderi fab Pwyll, and may be associated with the minor Arthurian character Mabon fab Mellt.
Manawydan fab Llŷr
Manawydan fab Llŷr is a figure of Welsh mythology, the son of Llŷr and the brother of Brân the Blessed and Brânwen. The first element in his name is cognate with the stem of the name of the Irish sea god Manannán mac Lir, and likely originated from the same Celtic deity as Manannán. Unlike Manannán, however, no surviving material connects him with the sea in any way except for his patronymic (llŷr is an old Welsh word for sea). Manawydan's most important appearances occur in the Second and Third Branches of the Mabinogi (the later of which is named for him), but he is also referenced frequently in medieval poetry and the Welsh Triads.
Math fab Mathonwy
In Welsh mythology, Math fab Mathonwy, also called Math ap Mathonwy (Math, son of Mathonwy) was a king of Gwynedd who needed to rest his feet in the lap of a virgin unless he was at war, or he would die. The story of Math is the fourth book of The Four Branches of the Mabinogi.
Myrddin Wyllt
Myrddin Wyllt (Welsh: [ˈmərðɪn ˈwɨɬt]), Myrddin Emrys, Merlinus Caledonensis, or Merlin Sylvestris (a legendary figure associated in some sources with events in the sixth century), is a figure in medieval Welsh legend, known as a prophet and a madman. He is the most important prototype for the modern composite image of Merlin, the wizard from Arthurian legend. Texts about Myrddin Wyllt have similarities to an account of a north-British figure called Lailoken. He was probably born sometime around or in AD 540, and is said to have had a twin sister called Gwendydd or Gwenddydd or Languoreth. Myrddin Wyllt is said to have gone mad after the Battle of Arfderydd at Arthuret, which was waged between the victor Rhydderch Hael or Riderch I of Alt Clut and Gwenddoleu in AD 573. He fled into the forest and lived with the animals. There he is said to have found his gift of prophecy.
Nisien is a figure in Welsh mythology, the son of Penarddun and Euroswydd and twin brother of Efnisien. He appears in the Second Branch of the Mabinogi, which names Bran the Blessed, Branwen, and Manawydan as his half-siblings. Nisien, also Nissyen, was the opposite of his brother Efnisien in personality. He was tranquil and generous, while Efnisien was vindictive and destructive.
Efnysien fab Euroswydd
Efnysien fab Euroswydd (also spelled Efnissien or Efnisien) is a sadistic anti-hero in Welsh mythology, appearing prominently in the tale of Branwen ferch Llŷr, the second branch of the Mabinogi. Described by Will Parker as "a study in the psychopathic personality" and an "embodiment of the forces of anti-social disruption," he is the catalyst of the tale's ultimate tragedy, and is largely responsible for the destruction of both Ireland and the Island of the Mighty. He is the son of Euroswydd and Penarddun, twin brother to Nisien, and half-brother to Brân, Manawydan and Branwen. The Welsh Triads call Llŷr one of the Three Exalted Prisoners of Britain for his captivity at Euroswydd's hands; this is likely to a lost tradition of the birth of Penarddun's younger sons.
Pryderi fab Pwyll
Pryderi fab Pwyll is a prominent figure in Welsh mythology, the son of Pwyll and Rhiannon, and king of Dyfed after his father's death. He is the only character to appear in all Four Branches of the Mabinogi, although the size of his role varies from tale to tale. He is often equated with the divine son figure of Mabon ap Modron, while Jeffrey Gantz compares him to Peredur fab Efrawg, who is himself associated with the continental figure of Sir Percival de Galles.
Pwyll Pen Annwn
Pwyll Pen Annwn is a prominent figure in Welsh mythology and literature, the lord of Dyfed, husband of Rhiannon and father of the hero Pryderi. He is the eponymous hero of Pwyll Pendefig Dyfed, the first branch of the Four Branches of the Mabinogi, and also appears briefly as a member of Arthur's court in the medieval tale Culhwch ac Olwen. Pwyll, Prince of Dyfed also carries many similarities to the Mabinogi Branwen.
Taliesin (fl. 6th century; (/ˌtæliˈɛsɨn/; Welsh pronunciation: [talˈjɛsɪn]) was an early Brythonic poet of Sub-Roman Britain whose work has possibly survived in a Middle Welsh manuscript, the Book of Taliesin. Taliesin was a renowned bard who is believed to have sung at the courts of at least three Brythonic kings. A maximum of eleven of the preserved poems have been dated to as early as the 6th century, and were ascribed to the historical Taliesin. The bulk of this work praises King Urien of Rheged and his son Owain mab Urien, although several of the poems indicate that he also served as the court bard to King Brochfael Ysgithrog of Powys and his successor Cynan Garwyn, either before or during his time at Urien's court. Some of the events to which the poems refer, such as the Battle of Arfderydd (c. 583), are referred to in other sources.
Ysbaddaden Bencawr
Ysbaddaden Bencawr; "Ysbaddaden, Chief of Giants," is the primary antagonist of the Welsh romance Culhwch ac Olwen. A vicious giant residing in a nigh unreachable castle, he is the father of Olwen and uncle of Goreu fab Custennin. So huge is his frame, he requires great forks to prop up his eyelids.
Arianrhod (Welsh pronunciation: [arˈjanr̥ɔd]) is a figure in Welsh mythology who plays her most important role in the Fourth Branch of the Mabinogi. She is the daughter of Dôn and the sister of Gwydion and Gilfaethwy; the Welsh Triads give her father as Beli Mawr. In the Mabinogi her uncle Math ap Mathonwy is the King of Gwynedd, and during the course of the story she gives birth to two sons, Dylan ail Don and Lleu Llaw Gyffes, through magical means.
Blodeuwedd or Blodeuedd, (Middle Welsh composite name from blodeu 'flowers, blossoms' + gwedd 'face, aspect, appearance': "flower face"), is the wife of Lleu Llaw Gyffes in Welsh mythology, made from the flowers of broom, meadowsweet and the oak by the magicians Math and Gwydion, and is a central figure in the fourth branch of the Mabinogi.
Branwen, Daughter of Llŷr is a major character in the Second Branch of the Mabinogi, which is sometimes called the Mabinogi of Branwen after her. Branwen is a daughter of Llŷr and Penarddun. She is married to the King of Ireland, but the marriage does not bring peace.
Ceridwen (pronounced [kɛrˈɪdwɛn] Cer-id-wen ) was an enchantress in Welsh medieval legend. She was the mother of a hideous son, Morfran, and a beautiful daughter, Creirwy. Her husband was Tegid Foel, and they lived near Bala Lake (Llyn Tegid) in north Wales. Medieval Welsh poetry refers to her as possessing the cauldron of poetic inspiration (Awen) and the Tale of Taliesin recounts her swallowing her servant Gwion Bach who is then reborn through her as the poet Taliesin. Ceridwen is regarded by many modern Pagans as the Celtic goddess of rebirth, transformation, and inspiration.
Cigfa ferch Gwyn Glohoyw
Cigfa ferch Gwyn Glohoyw (Middle Welsh: Kigua) is a minor character in Welsh mythology, the wife of King Pryderi of Dyfed. She is mentioned briefly in the First Branch of the Mabinogi, and appears more prominently in the third. Describing the character, Proinsias Mac Cana writes: "Cigfa strikes one as a slight though effective vignette of a contemporary bourgeois snob while William John Gruffydd hypothesises that the character was a later addition to the tale." John Rhys suggested a connection between Cigfa and the Irish character Ciochba.
Creiddylad (also known as Creirddylad, Creurdilad, Creudylad or Kreiddylat), daughter of King Lludd, is a minor character in the early medieval Welsh Arthurian tale Culhwch ac Olwen.
The cyhyraeth (Welsh pronunciation: [kəˈhəreθ]), also spelled as cyheuraeth (probably from the noun cyhyr "muscle, tendon; flesh" + the termination -aeth; meaning "skeleton, a thing of mere flesh and bone"; "spectre", "death-portent", "wraith") is a ghostly spirit in Welsh mythology, a disembodied moaning voice that sounds before a person's death. Legends associate the cyhyraeth with the area around the river Tywi in eastern Dyfed, as well as the coast of Glamorganshire. The noise is said to be "doleful and disagreeable", like the groans and sighs of someone deathly ill, and to sound three times (growing weaker and fainter each time) as a threefold warning before the person expires. Along the Glamorganshire coast, the cyhyraeth is said to be heard before a shipwreck, accompanied by a corpse-light. Like the Irish banshee and the Scottish Cailleach, to which the cyhyraeth and the Gwrach y Rhibyn (see below) are closely related, the cyhyraeth also sounds for Welsh natives living - and dying - far from home.
Dôn (Welsh pronunciation: [ˈdoːn]) is a Welsh mother goddess. She does not play a direct part in the action of the Mabinogi, though many characters in that cycle are related to her. She is the mother of Arianrhod, Gwydion, Gilfaethwy, Gofannon, Eufydd, Elestron and Amaethon. Patrick K. Ford asserts that she is the equivalent of the Irish Danu and of the Gaulish goddess "whose name is preserved in the river name Danube (Donau)". This theonym appears to be derived from Proto-Celtic *Dānu meaning "fluvial water".
Saint Elen
Saint Elen (Welsh: Elen Luyddog, lit. "Helen of the Hosts"), often anglicized as Helen, was a late 4th-century founder of churches in Wales. Traditionally, she is said to have been a daughter of the Romano-British ruler Eudaf Hen (Octavius) and the wife of Macsen (Magnus Clemens Maximus), the 4th-century emperor in Britain, Gaul, and Spain who was killed in battle in 388. Although never formally canonized by Rome, Elen is traditionally considered a saint in the Welsh Church; she is known as Saint Helen of Caernarfon in English to distinguish her from the better-known Saint Helena
Modron ("mother") is a figure in Welsh tradition, known as the mother of the hero Mabon ap Modron. Both characters may have derived from earlier divine figures, in her case the Gaulish goddess Matrona. She may have been a prototype for Morgan le Fay from the Arthurian legend.
In Welsh mythology, Olwen is the daughter of the giant Ysbaddaden and cousin of Goreu. She is the heroine of the story Culhwch and Olwen in the Mabinogion. Her father is fated to die if she ever marries, so when Culhwch (sometimes spelled as Kilhwch) comes to court her, he is given a series of immensely difficult tasks which he must complete before he can win her hand. With the help of his cousin King Arthur, Culhwch succeeds and the giant dies, allowing Olwen to marry her suitor. The name "Olwen" reappears in the folktale Einion and Olwen, about a sheep herder who travels to the Otherworld to marry Olwen. The tale was collected at the turn of the 20th century but is certainly related to Culhwch and Olwen. The meaning of the name Olwen is "white footprint". According to legend, she was so gentle and fragile that white lilies would grow in her footprints.
Penarddun is a figure in Welsh mythology, the wife of Llŷr. The Second Branch of the Mabinogi names Bran, Branwen, and Manawydan as her children by Llŷr, and ascribes to her two additional sons by Euroswydd: Nisien, a good man, and Efnysien, a conniving troublemaker. The Welsh Triads call Llŷr one of the Three Exalted Prisoners of Britain for his captivity at Euroswydd's hands; this likely refers to a lost tradition of the birth of Penarddun's younger sons. The Mabinogi names Penarddun as a daughter of the ancestor Beli Mawr, but the genealogy is confused; it is possible she was meant to be his sister rather than daughter.
Rhiannon is a classic figure in Celtic or Welsh literature, Welsh mythology or British mythology who appears prominently in the Mabinogi. This is the chief prose literature of mediaeval Wales, compiled circa 1100 from earlier oral traditions. It is culturally prominent in Welsh circles today, as well as popular in worldwide English translations. (The Mabinogi has also been known as the Mabinogion based on a probable scribal error and its interpretation in modern translation.) Rhiannon features prominently in these earliest British prose texts which survive in two distinct mediaeval manuscripts, Llyfr Gwyn (The White Book of Rhydderch) and Llyfr Goch (The Red Book of Hergest), but are retold today in countless publications as well as plays, film, storytelling and other arts. Rhiannon's original story is mainly in the First Branch of the Mabinogi, with more following in the Third Branch. She is a strongminded Otherworld woman, who chooses Pwyll, prince of Dyfed, as her consort in preference to another man to whom she has already been betrothed. Their son is the hero Pryderi, who inherits the lordship of Dyfed. Rhiannon as a widow marries Manawydan of the British royal family, and has further adventures.
Aernus was a theonym used for a god in the Celtiberian pantheon. The use of this theonym was confined to worship in the vicinity of Bragança. Around this area, a number of inscriptions to a god hailed by this name have been recorded. One inscription, found in Castro de Avelãs, Bragança, was dedicated by the 'ordo Zoelarum,' and this leads Tranoy and Roux to conclude that this god was probably the protector of the Zoelae. Another inscription was also found in Castro de Avelãs, while yet another was found in Malta in Macedo de Cavaleiros, also in the District of Bragança. While epigraphic evidence for Aernus is scarce, its concentration in a reduced territory in association with homogenous aspects of material culture indicates to Olivares a homogeneity in the cultural area of the Zoelae. The meaning of the name is still unknown but compare the Proto-Indo-European roots aper- 'behind, at the back' and and *āpero- 'bank' with the regular phonological developments in Celtic.
The theonym Bandua has been found recorded in Portugal and Galicia. The name is found with a number of epithets. In Rairiz de Veiga, Bandua is acknowledged as a god of the Vexillum and partner of Mars.
Candamius is an astral god that was worshipped in Iberian Spain. He is known from inscriptions and place-names in northern Spain. After Roman expansion, he became syncretised with Jupiter.
Cariocecus was the god of war in Celtiberian mythology, in the cultural area of Lusitania (in the territory of modern Portugal and part of Spain). He was equated with the Roman god Mars and Greek Ares. The Celtiberians practiced human sacrifice and when a priest wounded a prisoner in the stomach they made predictions by the way the victim fell down and by the appearance of the victim's innards. Sacrifices were not limited to prisoners but also included animals, horses and goats specifically. That was confirmed by Strabo: "They offer a goat and prisoners and horses". The Celtiberians cut the right hand off prisoners and consecrated it to Cariocecus.
Dercetius was a mountain god in Celtiberian mythology, in the cultural area of Gallaecia and Lusitania (in the territory of modern Galicia and Extremadura (Spain) and Portugal). Inscritptions dedicated to him have been found near Braga (Bracara Augusta, the Roman capital of Gallaecia).
Duberdicus or Duberdico, was a god of fountains, lakes, and oceans in Celtiberian mythology, in the cultural area of Lusitania (in the territory of modern Portugal).
Durius or Durio was a god worshiped by the ancient Lusitanians and Celtiberians of the Iberian peninsula. He was a personification of what is today known as the river Douro and is usually depicted holding a fishing net. A shrine dedicated to him was known to exist in the vicinity of Porto in Roman times.
Endovelicus (also Endouellicus, Endovélico in Portuguese), was an Iron Age god of public health and safety, worshipped in pre-Roman and Roman Lusitania, Celtebaria, and Gallaecia. He was associated with chthonic oracles and healing, and was probably the recipient of pig sacrifices. After the Roman invasion, his cult spread to most of the Roman Empire, but was always most popular in the Roman provinces of Lusitania (covering most of what is now Portugal) and Betica (located in Southern Spain). Thus he is considered part of the Roman mythology and the related Lusitanian and Gallaecian mythology. Endovelicus has a temple in São Miguel da Mota in Alentejo, Portugal, and there are numerous inscriptions and ex-votos dedicated to him in the Museu Etnológico de Lisboa (the Ethnological Museum of Lisbon). The cult of Endovelicus prevailed until the 5th century, just when Christianity was spreading in the region.
Neto or Mars Neto is the name of one of the deities of ancient Iberia, revered by the Lusitanians and Celtiberians. He was probably a god of war.
Reo Paramaeco is a name appearing on a Latin dedication to a Lusitanian-Gallaecian deity discovered in Lugo in Galicia. The name is in the dative case, for a Latinized name *Reus Paramaecus.
Runesocesius was a deity whose name appears on an inscription from the region of Évora, the Roman Ebora in modern Portugal in the area inhabited by the Celtici in Lusitania. He has generally been thought of as a Lusitanian and Celtiberian god.
In ancient Celtic religion, Sucellus or Sucellos was a god depicted in Gallo-Roman art as carrying a hammer or mallet and also a bowl or barrel. He has been associated with agriculture or wine production.
Tongoenabiagus was the god of the Fonte do Ídolo (Portuguese for Fountain of the Idol), a 1st-century shrine in Braga (the Roman Bracara Augusta) with an inscribed fountain dedicated both to Tongoenabiagus and the goddess Nabia. His name may derive from the Celtic root *tenge(o)- (Old Irish tongu "I swear") and so he may have been associated with the swearing of oaths.
Turiacus was a Celtic god of power in Lusitanian and Celtiberian mythology, in the cultural area of Gallaecia and Lusitania (in the territory of modern Galicia (Spain) and Portugal). Turiacus seems to have been particularly worshiped by the Grovii, a people of Gallaecia.
Visucius was a Gallo-Roman god, usually identified with Mercury. He was worshipped primarily in the east of Gaul, around Trier and on the Rhine; his name is recorded on about ten dedicatory inscriptions. One such inscription has also been found in Bordeaux. Visucius is, along with Gebrinius and Cissonius, among the most common indigenous epithets of the Gaulish Mercury. The name has sometimes been interpreted as meaning "of the ravens" or "knowledgeable"; cf. the Proto-Celtic roots wesāko- 'raven, grebe' (cf. Old Irish disyllabic fiach, Welsh gwyach) and *witsu- 'knowing'. The variant or mistaken spelling Visuclus is also attested. In a Latin inscription from Rheinzabern, Germany (CIL 13, 5991) dedicated to Jupiter, Apollo, and Visucius, the name SOLI T appears after Visucius, perhaps originally standing for Solitumarus, an epithet of Mercury's in an inscription (AE 2001, 1388; AE 2008, 901) found at Chateaubleau, France. Another inscription is co-dedicated to Sancta Visucia, as well as to Mercurius Visucius. This goddess, apparently a companion or analogue of Visucius, has sometimes been likened to Rosmerta or Maia, who also accompany Mercury on many Gaulish dedications. One inscription dedicated to Visugius has also been found at Agoncillo in Spain; this may perhaps refer to the same deity.
In Gallo-Roman religion, Epona was a protector of horses, donkeys, and mules. She was particularly a goddess of fertility, as shown by her attributes of a patera, cornucopia, ears of grain and the presence of foals in some sculptures. She and her horses might also have been leaders of the soul in the after-life ride, with parallels in Rhiannon of the Mabinogion. Unusual for a Celtic deity, most of whom were associated with specific localities, the worship of Epona, "the sole Celtic divinity ultimately worshipped in Rome itself," was widespread in the Roman Empire between the first and third centuries AD.
Nabia was the goddess of rivers and water in Gallaecian and Lusitanian mythology, in the territory of modern Galicia (Spain) and Portugal. The present-day Navia River and Avia (river) in Galicia, was named in honor of the deity. Likewise, the Neiva River, near Braga (Bracara Augusta, old Roman capital of Gallaecia) and Nabão River that passes through the city of Tomar are also named after her. The goddess Nabia was very popular in the territory of the Callaici Bracari with several inscriptions, like the one at Braga's Fonte do Ídolo
Trebaruna, also Treborunnis and possibly Trebarunu was a Lusitanian deity, probably a goddess. Trebaruna's cult was located in the cultural area of Gallaecia and Lusitania (in the territory of modern Galicia (Spain) and Portugal). Her name could be derived from the Celtic trebo (home) and *runa (secret, mystery), suggesting a protector or protectress of property, home and families. Two small altars dedicated to this goddess were found in Portugal, one in Roman-Lusitanian Egitania (current Proença-a-Velha) and another in Lardosa. The Tavares Proença Regional Museum in Castelo Branco now contains the altar from Lardosa. It was located in an area where the people from a Castro settlement founded a Roman-Lusitanian villa. This altar used to hold a statue of the goddess which has since been lost. Nevertheless, it still preserves these inscriptions: TREBARONNE V(otum) S(Olvit) OCONUS OCONIS f(ilius). Which translate as: Oconus, son of Oco, has fulfilled the vow to Trebaruna. A name Trebarune (probably in the dative case) also appears on the inscription of Cabeço das Fráguas as a divinity receiving a sacrifice of a sheep. Following the announcement in 1895 by José Leite de Vasconcelos of the discovery of Trebaruna as a new theonym, a poem celebrating this was published which likened Trebaruna to the Roman Victoria. She has recently become among neo-Pagans, a goddess of battles and alliances. The Portuguese metal-band Moonspell composed a song called "Trebaruna" which is a celebration of the goddess.
Although the name Trebopala appears in only a single inscription, it is of interest because this inscription is in the Lusitanian language rather than in a Latin dedication. It is generally thought the first element is a Celtic one, *trebo- (or a cognate with it) meaning a house or dwelling place. The second element is interpreted either as "protector", or as the attested Lepontic/Ligurian word pala, probably meaning a sacred stone, or as "flat land." Trebopala is therefore said to mean either Protector of the Home, Plain of the Home or Altar of the Home. In the inscription, Trebopala is recorded as receiving a sacrifice of a single sheep (oilam).
The goddess of love, beauty, desire, and pleasure. She is dating Ares yet married to Hephaestus.
The god of light, music, arts, knowledge, healing, plague and darkness, prophecy, poetry, purity, athleticism, manly beauty, and enlightenment.
The god of war, bloodshed, and violence. He is dating Aphrodite, whom is married to Hephaestus.
The virgin goddess of the hunt, wilderness, animals, young girls, childbirth and plague.
The goddess of intelligence and skill, warfare, battle strategy, handicrafts, and wisdom.
The goddess of grain, agriculture and the harvest, growth and nourishment.
The crippled god of fire, metalworking, crafts and the forge.
The Queen of the Heavens and goddess of marriage, women, childbirth, heirs, kings, and empires
The god of boundaries, travel, communication, trade, thievery, trickery, language, writing, diplomacy, athletics, and animal husbandry.
The goddess of the hearth, home, architecture, domesticity, family, and the state.
The god of the sea, rivers, floods, droughts, earthquakes, and the creator of horses; known as the "Earth Shaker".
The King of the gods, the ruler of Mount Olympus and the god of the sky, weather, thunder, lightning, law, order, and fate.