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Vahagn Vishapakagh was the god of fire and war worshiped anciently and historically in Armenia. Some time in his existence, he formed a "triad" with Aramazd and Anahit. Vahagn was identified with the Greek Heracles. The priests of Vahévahian temple, who claimed Vahagn as their own ancestor, placed a statue of the Greek hero in their sanctuary. In the Armenian translation of the Bible, "Heracles, worshipped at Tyr" is renamed "Vahagn". All the gods, according to the Euhemerist belief, had been living men; Vahagn likewise, was introduced within the ranks of the Armenian kings, as the son of Yervand (6th century B.C.), together with his brothers — Bab and Tiran. Historian Khorenatsi's report of an ancient song gives a clue to his nature and origin: Ancient Armenian origin of Vahagn's birth song. Other parts of the song, now lost, said that Vahagn fought and conquered dragons, hence his title Vishabakagh, "dragon reaper", where dragons in Armenian lore are identified as "Vishaps". He was invoked as a god of courage, later identified with Herakles. He was also a sun-god, rival of Baal-shamin and Mihr. The Vahagnian song was sung to the accompaniment of the lyre by the bards of Goghten, long after the conversion of Armenia to Christianity. The stalk or reed, key to the situation, is an important word in Indo-European mythology, in connection with fire in its three forms. Vahagn was linked to Verethragna, the hypostasis of victory in the texts of the Avesta; the name turned into Vahagn, later on to take the form of Vahagn. See Վահագն for more on the origin of the name. The Armenian princely house of Vahevunis believed to derive from Vahagn. The Vahevunis were ranked high in the Royal Registrar of Armenia, recorded by King Valarshak. In the pre-Christian Armenia, the Vahevunis hereditarily possessed the temple town of Ashtishat on the left bank of the Aratzani river and most likelly also held the post of the Sparapet, i.e.t he Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Armenian Army.
In the earliest prehistoric period Astghig, commonly referred to as Asya, Astghik, or Astlik, (Armenian: Աստղիկ) had been worshipped as the Armenian pagan deity of fertility and love , later the skylight had been considered her personification, and she had been the wife or lover of Vahagn. In the later heathen period she became the goddess of love, maidenly beauty, and water sources and springs. The Vartavar festival devoted to Astghik that had once been celebrated in mid July was transformed into the Christian holiday of the Transfiguration of Christ, and is still celebrated by the Armenians. As in pre-Christian times, on the day of this fest the people release doves and sprinkle water on each other with wishes of health and good luck. With Aramazd, the father of all deities, the creator of heaven and earth, and Anahit that had been worshiped as Great Lady and Mother Deity, she forms an astral trinity in the pantheon of Armenian heathen deities. In the period of Hellenistic influence, Astghik became similar to the Greek Aphrodite and the Mesopotamian Ishtar. Her name is the diminutive of Armenian աստղ astġ, meaning "star", which through Proto-Indo-European *h₂stḗr is cognate to Sanskrit stṛ, Avestan star, Pahlavi star, Persian sitara´, Pashto storai, Latin and Italian stella and astro, French astre, Spanish astro, German stern, English star, etc. Her principal seat was in Ashtishat, located to the North from Mush, where her chamber was dedicated to the name of Vahagn, the personification of a sun-god, her lover or husband according to popular tales, and had been named "Vahagn's bedroom". Other temples and places of worship of Astghik had been located in various towns and villages, such as the mountain of Palaty, in Artamet, etc. The unique monuments of prehistoric Armenia, "višap" vishaps (Arm. višap 'serpent, dragon') or "dragon stones", spread in many provinces of historical Armenia - Gegharkunik, Aragatsotn, Javakhk, Tayk, etc., and are another manifastation of her worship.
In Celtic mythology, Belatucadros or Belatucadrus, was a deity worshipped in northern Britain, particularly in Cumberland and Westmorland. He may be related to Belenus and Cernunnos, and was equated in the Roman period with Mars. He appears to have been worshipped by lower-ranked Roman soldiers as well as by Britons. Belatucadros is known from approximately 28 inscriptions in the vicinity of Hadrian's Wall, England. The spelling of the god's name varies a great deal, and dedications to Balatocadrus, Balatucadrus, Balaticaurus, Balatucairus, Baliticaurus, Belatucairus, Belatugagus, Belleticaurus, Blatucadrus and Blatucairus are generally accepted as variants of Belatucadros. The most common of these forms is Belatucadrus, which as a result is the name generally used in modern writings. In five of these inscriptions, Belatucadros is equated with the Roman god Mars as Mars Belatucadrus. The altars dedicated to Belatucadros were usually small, simple and plain, leading to the suggestion that this god was mainly worshipped by people of low social status. The name is frequently glossed as 'fair shining one' or 'fair slayer' presumably because the first syllable of the name is analogous to the reconstructible Proto-Celtic element belo- 'bright.' This element is reconstructed as belo- for Proto-Celtic in the Proto-Celtic lexicon. The element is linked to the Indo-European root bhel- 'shine'. However, a cursory glance at the Proto-Celtic lexicon reveals that belatu- is reconstructible for Proto-Celtic with the meaning 'death' and that kadro- is a reconstructible element meaning 'decorated.' So the name Belatucadros may also be interpreted as a compound of two Gallic words descended from two Proto-Celtic elements belatu- and *kadro- which together as a compound adjective would literally mean '[the] death-decorated [one].' Indeed, this is hardly an original proposal for the meaning of the name of this god associated with Mars: MacCulloch as early as 1911 (p135) glossed this god's name as 'comely in slaughter'. So 'fair shining one' or 'fair slayer' is not the only gloss acceptable for this theonym.
Cicolluis or Cicoluis (also known as Cicollus, Cicolus, Cicollui, and Cichol) is a god in Celtic mythology worshiped by the ancient Gaulish peoples and having a parallel in Ireland. The name is Gaulish and means "All-Breast" or "Great-Breasted" and is probably used to signify strength. In the Gallo-Roman religion, Cicolluis is thought to be a common epithet for Gaulish Mars. A Latin dedicatory inscription from Narbonne (which was in the far south of Gaul), France, bears the words MARTI CICOLLUI ET LITAVI ("Mars Cicolluis and Litavis")."Mars Cicolluis" has dedications in Xanten, Germany, and Aignay-le-Duc (where his consort is given as Litavis) and Mâlain (where his consorts are given as Litavis and Bellona, Roman goddess and personification of war) of the Côte-d'Or, France. "Cicolluis" is named alone (not as an epithet of Mars) in an inscription at Chassey, Côte-d'Or, Franche-Comté, France, and a partial inscription from Ruffey-lès-Echirey, Côte-d'Or, France, may be dedicated to Cicolluis. In Windisch, Switzerland, he is known as "Cicollus," and in Dijon, Côte-d'Or, France, he is known as "Mars Cicoluis." Cicolluis may also be compared to Cichol or Cíocal Gricenchos, the earliest-mentioned leader of the Fomorians or Fomóiri (the semi-divine initial inhabitants of Ireland) in Irish mythology. According to the seventeenth-century Irish historian Seathrún Céitinn (also known by the English name Geoffrey Keating), Cichol arrived in Ireland with fifty men and fifty women on six boats a hundred years after the Flood. There, his people lived on fish and fowl for two hundred years until Partholón and his people (who brought the plough and oxen) invaded and defeated the Fomorians in the Battle of Magh Ithe. Cicolluis's name is most likely derived from the reconstructed proto-Celtic roots k-kƒ ("breast," but also yields the insular Celtic words for "meat," such as Irish cich ["flesh"]), Welsh cig ["meat/flesh"] and flesh"] and *olyo- ("all," "whole," or "every"); this leads to the translation "All-Breast" or "Great-Breasted." This likely epithet for strength might relate with Cichol as leader of the Fomorians. Therefore, Cicolluis may have been identified with the warrior aspect of Roman Mars and may have been a protective deity.
In Celtic mythology, Condatis ("waters meet") was a deity worshipped primarily in northern Britain but also in Gaul. He was associated with the confluences of rivers, in particular the River Wear which runs its course largely within County Durham. Condatis is known from several inscriptions in Britain and a single inscription found at Alonnes, Sarthe, France. In each case he is equated with the Roman god Mars. In 1886, a Roman altar was discovered near the Roman station at Chester-le-Street, where the Cong Burn joins the River Wear. The altar was buried six feet deep in soil of an alluvial character. The inscription, which was to DEO marti CONDATI, was formed by a series of punctures. The altar probably belonged to the end of the second or the beginning of the third century. A fragmentary altar bearing the Inscription MARTI CONDATI has been found in Bowes, near Barnard Castle in County Durham and another in Piercebridge, the site of a Roman fort, also in County Durham. Recently a new inscription to Condatis has been discovered at Cramond in the Lothian region of Scotland (AE 1978, 451; dedicated to d(eo) M(arti) Con[dati]). In Roman times he was equated with Mars, probably in his healing function. The association with the confluence of waters would tend to link this deity with the prevalent Celtic cult of thermal waters rather than solely with war. Again, this may reflect the origins of Condatis as a protector of aberau (the confluence of waters) with his martial aspect only being predominant in the Roman world. The name Condatis is derived from condate and means 'God of the Confluence'. Names with the root 'condate' are found in place-names such as Condé sur Itan and Condat Cantal in France as well as the ancient name of Northwich in Cheshire Condate. Condate was also the Celtic name of Rennes, then the city of the Redones and now the capital of the region of Brittany.
The Hooded Spirits or Genii Cucullati are figures found in religious sculpture across the Romano-Celtic region from Britain to Pannonia, depicted as "cloaked scurrying figures carved in an almost abstract manner" (Henig, 62). They are found with a particular concentration in the Rhineland (Hutton). In Britain they tend to be found in a triple deity form, which seems to be specific to the British representations (De la Bedoyère). The hooded cape was especially associated with Gauls or Celts during the Roman period. The hooded health god was known as Telesphorus specifically and may have originated as a Greco-Gallic syncretism with the Galatians in Anatolia in the 3rd century BC. The religious significance of these figures is still somewhat unclear, since no inscriptions have been found with them in this British context (De la Bedoyère). There are, however, indications that they may be fertility spirits of some kind. Ronald Hutton argues that in some cases they are carrying shapes that can be seen as eggs, symbolizing life and rebirth, while Graham Webster has argued that the curved hoods are similar in many ways to contemporary Roman curved phallus stones. However, several of these figures also seem to carry swords or daggers, and Henig discusses them in the context of warrior cults. Guy de la Bédoyère also warns against reading too much in to size differences or natures in the figures, which have been used to promote theories of different roles for the three figures, arguing that at the skill level of most of the carvings, small differences in size are more likely to be hit-and-miss consequences, and pointing out that experimental archaeology has shown hooded figures one of the easiest sets of figures to carve.
Intarabus was a Gaulish god in the pantheon of the Treveri and some neighbouring peoples. His name is known from nine inscriptions from a relatively compact area in what are now Belgium, Luxembourg, western Germany and eastern France. He may have been the tutelary deity of one of the three pagi (subdivisions) of the Treveri. In most cases, Intarabus is invoked alone - without any synthesis to a Roman deity, and without accompanying female deities. However, one inscription invokes him as Mars Intarabus, noting that a fanum and simulacrum of this god had been restored at Trier. Meanwhile, another inscription from Mackwiller in Alsace gives Intarabus the epithet Narius. An inscription at Ernzen in Germany has his name as [In] tarabus, while another from Foy-Noville (now within the town of Bastogne in Belgium), invokes Entarabus in conjunction with the Genius Ollodagus. A bronze statuette from the Foy-Noville site, identified on the base as Deo Intarabo (in the dative case), depicts the god as a beardless, long-haired man in a tunic, draped with a wolf skin. His raised right hand would presumably have held a spear or some other implement, while his left hand, extended at waist length, is now missing. The theatre at Echternach appears to have been dedicated to Intarabus, as was an aedicula at Ernzen. A silver ring engraved simply with the name Intarabo (again, in the dative case) was found at Dalheim. The name 'Intarabus' has been characterized as "etymologically obscure"; Xavier Delamarre, however, takes the name to mean entar-abus "Entre-Rivières" (between rivers).
Lenus was a Celtic healing god worshipped mainly in eastern Gaul, where he was almost always identified with the Roman god Mars. He was an important god of the Treveri tribe, who had large sanctuaries at medicinal springs at Trier and the Martberg by Pommern in what is now Germany. Two dedications to him are also known from southwestern Britain (Chedworth and Caerwent). Edith Wightman characterizes him as "one of the best examples of a Teutates, or god of the people, equated with Mars—protector of the tribe in battle, but also bestower of health and general good fortune" (p. 211). His sanctuary 'Am Irminenwingert' at Trier had a large temple, baths, smaller shrines and a theatre; that on the Martberg also included a large variety of buildings, probably including rooms for health-seeking pilgrims to stay. Despite his associations with healing, Lenus Mars is depicted classically as a warrior with Corinthian helmet in a bronze statuette from the Martberg. His name most often appears in inscriptions as 'Lenus Mars', rather than 'Mars Lenus' as would be expected from other most syncretized names. At Trier, Lenus Mars's divine partners were the Celtic god Ancamna and the Roman Victoria, as well as the Xulsigiae, who are perhaps water nymphs. An inscription from Kaul in Luxembourg appears to invoke Lenus Mars 'Veraudunus' along with the Celtic god Inciona. Lenus was not the only Celtic god identified with Mars by the Treveri; others, such as Iovantucarus (apparently a protector of youth), Intarabus, Camulos, and Loucetios were identified with Mars and perhaps, by extension, with Lenus. His name occasionally appears as 'Mars Laenus'; the more usual form 'Lenus Mars' is accompanied by the epithets Arterancus and Exsobinus on one inscription each.
Britannia is an ancient term for Roman Britain and also a female personification of the island. The name is Latin, and derives from the Greek form Prettanike or Brettaniai, which originally designated a collection of islands with individual names, including Albion or Great Britain; however, by the 1st century BC Britannia came to be used for Great Britain specifically. In AD 43 the Roman Empire began its conquest of the island, establishing a province they called Britannia, which came to encompass the parts of the island south of Caledonia (roughly Scotland). The native Celtic inhabitants of the province are known as the Britons. In the 2nd century, Roman Britannia came to be personified as a goddess, armed with a trident and shield and wearing a Corinthian helmet. The Latin name Britannia long survived the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, and yielded the name for the island in most European and various other languages, including the English Britain and the modern Welsh Prydain. After centuries of declining use, the Latin form was revived during the English Renaissance as a rhetorical evocation of a British national identity. Especially following the Acts of Union in 1707, which joined the Kingdoms of England and Scotland, the personification of the martial Britannia was used as an emblem of British imperial power and unity. She was featured on all modern British coinage series until the redesign in 2008, and still appears annually on the gold and silver 'Britannia' bullion coin series.
Trebaruna, also Treborunnis and possibly Trebarunu was a Lusitanian deity, probably a goddess. Trebaruna's cult was located in the cultural area of Gallaecia and Lusitania (in the territory of modern Galicia (Spain) and Portugal). Her name could be derived from the Celtic trebo (home) and *runa (secret, mystery), suggesting a protector or protectress of property, home and families. Two small altars dedicated to this goddess were found in Portugal, one in Roman-Lusitanian Egitania (current Proença-a-Velha) and another in Lardosa. The Tavares Proença Regional Museum in Castelo Branco now contains the altar from Lardosa. It was located in an area where the people from a Castro settlement founded a Roman-Lusitanian villa. This altar used to hold a statue of the goddess which has since been lost. Nevertheless, it still preserves these inscriptions: TREBARONNE V(otum) S(Olvit) OCONUS OCONIS f(ilius). Which translate as: Oconus, son of Oco, has fulfilled the vow to Trebaruna. A name Trebarune (probably in the dative case) also appears on the inscription of Cabeço das Fráguas as a divinity receiving a sacrifice of a sheep. Following the announcement in 1895 by José Leite de Vasconcelos of the discovery of Trebaruna as a new theonym, a poem celebrating this was published which likened Trebaruna to the Roman Victoria. She has recently become among neo-Pagans, a goddess of battles and alliances. The Portuguese metal-band Moonspell composed a song called "Trebaruna" which is a celebration of the goddess.
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