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24 terms

Chp. 5 Development and Plasticity of the Brain

STUDY
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apoptosis
developmental program by which a neuron kills itself at a certain age unless inhibited from doing so
differentiation
formation of the axon and dendrites that gives a neuron its distinctive shape
fetal alcohol syndrome
condition resulting from prenatal exposure to alcohol and marked by decreased alertness, hyperactivity, varying degrees of mental retardation, motor problems, heart defects, and facial abnormalities
focal hand dystonia
"musician's cramp", a condition in which the touch responses to one finger overlap those of another, leading to clumsiness, fatigue, and involuntary movements
migration
movement of neurons toward their eventual destinations in the brain
myelination
development of a myelin sheath that insulates an axon
nerve growth factor
protein that promotes the survival and growth of axons in the sympathetic nervous system and certain axons in the brain
neurotrophin
chemical that promotes the survival and activity of neurons
proliferation
production of new cells
stem cells
undifferentiated cells that can divide and produce daughter cells that develop more specialized porperties
synaptogenesis
formation of synapses
closed head injury
sharp blow to the head resulting from a fall, an automobile or motorcycle accident, an assault, or other sudden trauma that does not actually puncture the brain
collateral sprout
newly formed branch from an uninjured axon that attaches to a synapse vacated when another axon was destroyed
denervation supersensitivity
increased sensitivity by a postsynaptic cell after removal of an axon that formerly innervated it
diaschisis
decreased activity of surviving neurons after other neurons are damaged
disuse supersensitivity
increased sensitivity by a postsynaptic cell because of decreased input by incoming axons
edema
accumulation of fluids
hemorrhage
rupture of an artery
ischemia
local insufficiency of blood because a blood clot or other obstruction has closed an artery
penumbra
area of endangered cells surrounding an area of primary damage
phantom limb
continuing sensation of an amputated body part
stroke
(cerebrovascular accident) temporary loss of normal blood flow to a brain area
tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)
drug that breaks up blood clots
deafferent
to remove or disable the sensory nerves from a body part