33 terms

Invitation to the Life Span-Chapter 6

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Initiative versus guilt
Erikson's third psychosocial crisis, in which children undertake new skills and activities and feel guilty when they do not succeed at them
Self-Esteem
A person's evaluation of his or her own worth, either in specifics (e.g., intelligence, attractiveness) or in general
Self-Concept
A person't understanding of who he or she is, incorporating self-esteem, physical appearance, personality, and various personal traits, such as gender and size.
Intrinsic Motivation
A drive, or reason to pursue a goal, that comes from inside a person, such as the need to feel smart or competent.
Extrinsic Motivation
A drive, or reason to pursue a goal, that arises from the need to have one's achievements rewarded from outside, perhaps by receiving material possessions or another person's esteem.
Psychopathology
an illness or disorder of the mind
Externalizing Problems
Difficulty with emotional regulation that involves expressing powerful feelings through uncontrolled physical or verbal outbursts, as by lashing out at other people or breaking things
Internalizing Problems
Difficulty with emotional regulation that involves turning one's emotional distress inward, as by feeling excessively guilty, ashamed, or worthless
Rough-and-Tumble play
play that mimics aggression through wrestling, chasing, or hitting, but in which there is no intent to harm.
Sociodramatic play
pretend play in which children act out various roles and themes in stories that they create
Authoritarian Parenting
an approach to child rearing that is characterized by high behavioral standards, strict punishment of misconduct, and little communication
Permissive Parenting
an approach to child rearing that is characterized by high nurturance and communication but little discipline, guidance, or control
Authoritative Parenting
an approach to child rearing in which the parents set limits but listen to the child and are flexible
Neglectful/Uninvolved Parenting
An approach to child rearing in which the parents are indifferent toward their children and unaware of what is going on in their children's lives
Empathy
The ability to understand the emotions and concerns of another person, especially when they differ from one's own.
Antipathy
Feelings of dislike or even hatred for another person.
Prosocial Behavior
Actions that are helpful and kind but that are of no obvious benefit to the person doing them.
Antisocial Behavior
Actions that are deliberately hurtful or destructive to another person.
Instrumental Aggression
hurtful behavior that is intended to get or keep something that another person has and keep it.
Reactive Aggression
An impulsive retaliation for another person's intentional or accidental action, verbal or physical.
Relational Aggression
Nonphysical acts, such as insults or social rejection, aimed at harming the social connection between the victim and other people.
Bullying Aggression
Unprovoked, repeated physical or verbal attack, especially on victims who are unlikely to defend themselves.
Psychological control
A disciplinary technique that involves threatening to withdraw love and support and that relies on a child's feelings of guilt and gratitude to the parents.
Time-Out
A disciplinary technique in which a child is separated from other people and activities for a specified time.
Sex Differences
Biological differences between males and females, in organs, hormones, and body shape.
Gender Differences
Differences in the roles and behaviors that are prescribed by a culture for males and females.
Phallic Stage
Freud's third stage of development, when the penis becomes the focus of concern and pleasure.
Oedipus Complex
the unconscious desire of young boys to replace their father and win their mother's exclusive love.
Superego
In psychoanalytic theory, the judgmental part of the personality that internalizes the moral standards of the parents.
Electra complex
the unconscious desire of girls to replace their mother and win their father's exclusive love.
Identification
An attempt to defend one's self-concept by takinh on the behaviors and attitudes of someone else.
Gender Schema
A child's cognitive concept or general belief about sex differences, which is based on his or her observations and experiences.
Androgyny
a balance, within a person, of traditionally male and female psychological characteristics.