CMS 334K Nonverbal Exam #2


Terms in this set (...)

Are there universal standards of beauty?
yes - because we have innate standards for survival & reproduction (facial/hip ratio)
no - because there are cultural and time (period) differences; nurture side (culture, parental & social communication, media influences)
What were the major differences between real life individuals and television characters in terms of body type?
Majority of television characters are average/underweight, whereas, majority of real life individuals are overweight.
What do we consider attractive in both males and females?
a. Symmetry in facial features
b."Average" facial features - the most familiar/typical face in the environment is more attractive; composite female faces are more attractive.
Features considered attractive for females
clear skin, hip ratio, full lips, high cheek bones, small chin and nose, lustrous hair, high forehead
Features considered attractive for males
strong jaw, normal weight, prominent cheekbones, large smile, greater height, muscular (wide shoulders and low body fat %)
The effects of attractiveness
Attractive people are assumed to be good, honest,
"the halo effect" What is beautiful is good. More job offers, more raises and promotions
get more attention, more likely to get a 2nd chance, defendants who are attractive get a lighter sentence, teachers are drawn to attractive children, children like attractive teachers.
Qualifications (exceptions) to these effects of attractiveness
Dating-less attractive females get more dates because of male fear of rejection
Work-attractiveness can work against females
Antisocial behavior-Attractive benefit doesn't apply if the attractiveness is used to commit offense
Persuading others-attractiveness only works during initial stages of persuasive effort
Self-esteem- relationship doesn't hold across life span
Results of the Walster et al. (1966) study of dating and attractiveness
Physical attractiveness was strongly correlated with "willing to date again" in "computer dance" studies.
Alcohol's effect on rating attractiveness
-Men and women perceived a significant increase in the attractiveness of others as closing time in bars drew near
-Even moderate alcohol consumption tends to increase the ratings of physical attractiveness of the opposite sex
How height is related to status, attractiveness, and competence
We tend to associate tallness with power and status, and being short with that of children or a Napoleonic complex. Taller men are seen as more attractive
Taller males are seen as more competent on the job. There is no real difference between tall and short people however, it is all in the perception.
2 conclusions about clothing and communication
1- clothes communicate important messages
2-clothing communicates most effectively when it is adapted to the wearer's role and attendant surroundings.
Ways we permanently change our appearance
Piercing, branding, tattoos, cosmetic surgery
Conclusions from the Kurzban and Weeden (2008) reading
People tend to prefer mates with observable characteristics that are valued by most people rather than mates who are similar to themselves. The attributes were
weight, height, and age rather than education. religion, etc. Women were more picky than men, and cared about facial features.
Men cared more about women's body type. Both men and women adjust their selectivity based on how attractive they think they are (remember the video in class)
Are gestures innate?
Gestures have inherent tendencies, but they become more sophisticated and precise through learning.
Characteristics of emblems
-direct verbal translation (70% or more agree)
-high awareness in producing them
-context free
-made with hands
General categories of emblems that transcend cultures
response (yes/no)
regulating movement
reference to emotional/physical states
4 types of illustrators
-referent related (most of our gestures)
-speaker relationship to referent gestures (palms out/in to show acceptance)
-punctuation genstures (emphasis or organization)
-interaction regulation (let someone know when to speak)
Evidence that supports the communicative function of gestures
-Accuracy is greater when gestures accompany speech
-When gesturing is not permitted more spatial words or phrases are used
Factors that increase the frequency of gestures
-face to face conversations
-dominate conversations
-speech content
-looking for feedback
Speech and movement are rhythmically coordinated, even at microscopic levels.
Speech-body movement coordination within the actions of a single speaker.
Interaction synchrony
Speech-body movement between two speakers (social rhythm). This is usually an unconscious behavior
When behavior is matched, the other person feels more similar to you and can come away with a more positive opinion of you
Motor mimicry
empathetic reactions (smiling at someone else's joy, wincing at someone else's pain)
What is the major premise of Communication Accommodation theory? What is convergence? What is divergence? What drives convergence or divergence? In other words, why do people converge or diverge?
-convergence=strategy where individuals adapt their communication so that their visual, vocal, and/or verbal behavior becomes more similar to their partner's behavior.
-divergence=Refers to the way in which communicators accentuate perceived nonverbal differences between themselves and others.
-Convergence is used more when trying to blend in with a particular culture while divergence is for when you are trying to stand out more.
Why is touch important?
-important to physical and emotional wellbeing
-important to newborns
-important to development (feelings of security and attachment
-important to our health (decreases pain and depression/ boosts immune system)
-can replace verbal language
Sex differences in touch across the lifespan
At infancy both sexes need touch equally. At 6 months girls are expected to continue touching and boys are not. When developing relationships, couples have more frequent and intimate touch while establishing a relationship, and later on and when married, touch decreases.
Differences between touchers and non-touchers
Non-touchers tend to have more anxiety and tension in their lives and are socially withdrawn.
Touchers are more agreeable and open to new experiences.
Three main categories of touch
Argyle's types of touch- Friendly/aggressive
Morris's tie signs-shows relationships between people
Heslin's functions of touch
Heslin's functions of touch
-Functional/ Professional (no personal relationship)
-Social/polite (civility/social norms)
-Friendship/ warmth
What are the meanings of interpersonal touch?
-positive effect
-negative effect
-discrete emotions
-interaction management
-physiological stimulus
-physiological stimulus
-interpersonal responsiveness
-task related
Contextual factors affecting the meaning of touch
-context (private/public)
-characteristics (duration, etc)
-area touched
-relationship b/w individuals (person with more power can initiate touch)
-Personality of person being touch (extroverted=more open to touch)
-sex (females more comfortable)
Types of self-touching
-shielding actions- involve reducing input or output (covering mouth with hands)
-cleaning actions- use for attending to our appearance
-specialized signals -communicate specific messages, like cupping the ear to signal an inability to hear.
-self intimacies
-adaptors/self manipulators
Crusco and Wetzel study on touch (1999)
Shoulder touch and brief hand touch by waiter increased tipping (equally for both types of touch). Subjects were unaware that they were touched.
Facial Primacy
Tendency to give more weight to the face than other communication channels
What we can detect from facial cues
Sex, Age, and personality (mainly extroversion)
Ways the face influences interaction management
-Open and close channels of communication
-Complement or qualify verbal or nonverbal responses
-Replace speech
Complexities regarding facial displays
Sometimes we move rapidly from one emotion to another, sometimes we aren't sure what emotion we are feeling, sometimes we may have more than one emotion.
4 ways that we modify our facial expressions based on display rules
-De-intensification affect
-neutralizing feelings
-over-intensification of affect
-masking feelings
Affect blends
A facial expression depicting multiple emotions
How is methodology/measurement related to accuracy in recognition of emotions through facial expressions?
A free response question will produce a wide range of responses and it's a problem to decide whether the participant/judge's label corresponds to the researchers' "correct label."

Emotion categories that are discrete (happy, sad, fear,...) will result in high accuracy.
Frequency of pure, spontaneous emotional expressions
a rising tide of research now shows that a purely spontaneous nonverbal readout of emotional states may be a rarer event than some think. Facial expression and experienced emotional expressions are loosely coupled.
What is a Duchenne smile versus a non-Duchenne smile?
Duchenne smile occurs when happiness is actually felt and muscles of the face involved in smiling are contracted more.
Non-duchenne smiles are "fake" smiles when only the mouth shows a smile but the eyes aren't happy.
Does context influence our judgment of emotional expressions?
Facial Action Coding System
Ekman and Friesan created an expression coding system that organized different movements for mouth, eyes, according to each emotion.
Facial cues associated with the 6 basic emotions
-happiness (smile, eye wrinkles)
-sadness (triangular eyebrows)
-anger (brows lowered, bulging eyes)
-fear (brows raised and together, lower eyelid tense)
-surprise (raised eyebrows, horizontal wrinkles across face, lots of eye white, mouth open)
-disgust(nose wrinkled, upper lip raised)
Is expressiveness related to physical health?
Yes, King and Emmons found support for the hypothesis that ambivalence over emotional expression would be associated with poorer health
What is the facial feedback hypothesis? What evidence best supports the facial feedback hypothesis?
Emotions can be regulated through facial behavior (Darwin)
Social impacts of facial expressions
o Emotional Contagion- get with a group that is happy then you become happy.
Innate tendency to imitate
Mirror neurons- get activated by you or another person making a certain face
o Social Influence- smile can make someone more compliant
o Development
Facial expressions are important for it
Mobias syndrome- nerves for facial syndrome are paralyzed so can't make expressions
Major findings from the Kraut and Johnston reading on smiling
-social involvement is major cause of smiling
-smiling often occurs in social context
-smile appears to be a universal component of greetings
-in some situations; smiler's motivation is to ensure establishment & maintenance of friendly interaction.
Eye flash
The eyelids are briefly opened without the accompanying involvement of the eyebrows, for less than a second, used to emphasize particular words, usually adjectives.
Gaze v. Mutual gaze
Gaze is looking at another person
Mutual gaze is two people making eye contact with each other.
How does gaze regulate the flow of communication? What is the typical speaker/listener pattern?
-Visual contact occurs when we want to signal that the communication channel is open, establishes a virtual obligation to interact
-when we are talking we are usually not giving them eye contact half the time. its roughly 40%
-when we are listening we are looking at the person around 60% of the time
How does gaze monitor feedback? How is emotional contagion related to this function?
We gaze to seek feedback. Mutual eye gaze is interpreted a sign of attention.
How does gaze reflect cognitive activity? When are you more likely to avoid gaze in this process?
Averted eye gaze blocks stimuli to allow for easier cognitive activity.
How do we use gaze to express emotions? What emotion(s) are we better at detecting through the eyes?
We can detect the 6 basic emotions by eye gaze. Fear is most accurate, anger and disgust is more difficult.
Visual Dominance Ratio
Comparison of speaking time spent looking at the other to listening time spent looking at the other. (percentage ratio)
Higher VDR is more dominant
Intimacy Equilibrium model
Explains why and how much people gaze. Suggests that intimacy is a function of the amount of eye gazing, physical proximity, intimacy of topic, and amount of smiling.
Reciprocating and compensating nonverbal behavior
Eye gaze and married couples
During a conflict there is more eye contact
What is a general conclusion you can make about gazing patterns motivated by positive and negative feelings toward another
- People tend to look at those with whom they are interpersonally involved. Gazing motivated by hostility or affection both suggest an interest and involvement in the interpersonal relationship. We must rely on contextual information, and other verbal and nonverbal cues, to decide whether to interpret extended gazing positively or negatively.
How does distance influence gaze?
-Gazing and mutual gazing often increase as the people interacting increase the physical distance between them.
-It psychologically reduces distance and allows for better monitoring.
-Also, people reduce gazing when they feel too close in physical distance, especially if not well acquainted.
How do physical characteristics influence gaze?
There is no significant difference between normal and disables interactants.
How do personal and personality characteristics influence gaze? What are the 4 general conclusions about gaze and personality?
How do topics and tasks influence gaze?
If topic is more intimate that relationship, avoid gaze
Negative topics= less eye gaze
Competative-frequent gaze w/ small duration
cooperative= mutual eye gaze
Do gazing patterns ever elicit similar meanings in different cultures?
Non contact cultures=less comfortable w/ contact
Across the research reported in the chapter, what is a general conclusion about what pupil dilation indicates?
Pupils dilate when we feel positively toward something and constrict when we feel negative toward something.
Environmental factors affecting pupil dilation?
-Mental effort and interest (more cognitive energy=dilated)
Civil inattention
Letting strangers know you are aware of their presence with short eye gaze, but then avoiding gaze so you don't impose on them.
Why is civil inattention more likely to occur in the elevator context?
We avoid eye gaze with people we don't know in close proximity to increase distance between us.
What are the general conclusions regarding civil inattention in elevators? What are the 2 key components of civil inattention?
-exchange of glance to acknowledge presence of others
-gaze aversion for duration of elevator ride
The matching hypothesis
Our tendency is to select a person to date who is similar to ourselves in physical attractiveness - preferably a little above our self-perceived attractiveness.
Referent related gestures
give more information about what you are talking about
Ex. The fish was [-----] big (spacing hands out to show how big the fish was)
social ecology theory
facial expressions are more for communication than for expression
Social dominance - "I have no problem talking in front of a group"
Aggressive dominance- "I find it important to get my way."
Socially dominant people engaged in more mutual gaze, while aggressively dominant people engaged in more looking around (they showed lack of interest in others).