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chapter 4 nutrition

STUDY
PLAY
Characteristics of dietary phytic acid include all of the following except a. it is classified as a fiber.
b. it is found in the husks of grains.
c. it is synonymous with the term phytate.
d. it inhibits absorption of several minerals.
it is classified as a fiber
Which of the following describes the compound phytic acid?
a. Product of starch digestion
b. Nonnutrient component of plant seeds
c. Found in gastric juice and helps to lower pH of chyme
d. Found in high concentrations in the blood of people with diabetes
nonnutrient component of plant seeds
Which of the following is a feature of kefir?
a. Its low pH inactivates lactose
b. It contains live bacterial organisms
c. It contains half as much lactose as milk
d. It is a recommended substitute for people with milk allergy
it contains live bacterial organisms
Which of the following ingredients listed on food labels would be acceptable to the person who is highly intolerant to lactose in the diet?
a. Whey
b. Casein
c. Dextrins
d. Milk solids
dextrin
What is the first organ to respond to an increase in blood glucose concentration?
a. Brain
b. Liver
c. Muscle
d. Pancreas
pancreas
When blood glucose concentration falls, what pancreatic hormone is secreted to stimulate release of stored glucose?
a. Insulin
b. Glucagon
c. Epinephrine
d. Cholecystokinin
glucagon
Characteristics of dietary phytic acid include all of the following except
a. it is classified as a fiber.
b. it is found in the husks of grains.
c. it is synonymous with the term phytate.
d. it inhibits absorption of several minerals.
it is classified as a fiber
What is the primary organ that converts fructose to glucose following absorption?
a. Liver
b. Pancreas
c. Skeletal muscle
d. Small intestines
liver
Which of the following enzymes does not act on simple sugars?
a. Lactase
b. Sucrase
c. Amylase
d. Maltase
amylase
The chief carbohydrate in beet sugar is
a. starch.
b. sucrose.
c. glycogen.
d. invert sugar.
sucrose
What is the name of the animal polysaccharide composed of glucose units?
a. Fiber
b. Enzyme
c. Dextrin
d. Glycogen
glycogen
Which of the following is a characteristic of dietary fibers?
a. They cause diverticulosis
b. They raise blood cholesterol levels
c. They are usually found in high-fat foods
d. They are classified according to solubility in water
they are usually classified according to solubility in water
With few exceptions, all of the following characteristics are shared by water-soluble and water-insoluble fibers except
a. they are found only in plant-derived foods.
b. they consist primarily of nonstarch polysaccharides.
c. neither has an appreciable effect on glucose absorption.
d. their consumption enhances stool formation and elimination.
neither has an appreciable effect on glucose absorption
Which of the following fibers is water insoluble?
a. Gums
b. Pectins
c. Cellulose
d. Mucilages
cellulose
Water-soluble fibers include all of the following except
a. gums.
b. pectins.
c. lignins.
d. mucilages.
lignins
What is the name of the short chains of glucose units that result from starch breakdown?
a. Sucrose
b. Lignins
c. Pectins
d Dextrins
dextrins
When you are under physical stress, what hormone is released quickly to stimulate an increase in blood glucose concentration?
a. Insulin
b. Secretin
c. Glucogen
d. Epinephrine
epinephrine
In the time between meals, what organ releases glucose to help maintain normal blood glucose levels?
a. Liver
b. Pancreas
c. Intestines
d. Skeletal muscle
liver
Which of the following artificial sweeteners has a composition similar to aspartame?
a. Neotame
b. Sucralose
c. Saccharin
d. Acesulfame-K
neotame
All of the following components are part of the chemical structure of aspartame except
a. aspartic acid.
b. methyl group.
c. phenylalanine.
d. methanol group.
methanol group
Which of the following is a characteristic of the sugar replacers (sugar alcohols)?
a. They have a low glycemic index
b. They promote constipation in children
c. They demonstrate fewer GI side effects than the alternative sweeteners
d. They are less effective than alternative sweeteners in inhibiting dental caries
they have a low glycemic index
Which of the following is a general feature of the sugar alcohols (sugar replacers)?
a. They provide less than 1 kcalorie per gram
b. They elicit a high glycemic index
c. They are rapidly absorbed from the intestines
d. They cannot be metabolized by cariogenic bacteria
they cannot be metabolized by carriogenic bacteria
Which of the following is not a feature of high-fiber foods?
a. Effective in weight control
b. Provide feeling of fullness
c. Usually lower in fat and simple sugars
d. Provide more energy per gram than processed foods
provide more energy than processed foods
Which of the following is not a simple carbohydrate?
a. Starch
b. White sugar
c. Disaccharide
d. Monosaccharide
starch
Which of the following is a property of dietary lipids?
a. Omega-3 fatty acids are always unsaturated
b. Lipids that are solid at room temperature are classified as oils
c. The fatty acids in triglycerides may be of chain length 2 to 25 carbons
d. The most common fatty acid chain length in triglycerides is 10 carbons
Omega three fatty acids are always unsaturated
How many hydrogen atoms are attached to each carbon adjacent to a double bond?
a. 1
b. 2
c. 4
d. 6
1
What is the simplest fatty acid found in the diet?
a. Oleic acid
b. Acetic acid
c. Linoleic acid
d. Palmitic acid
acetic acid
Which of the following is a common dietary saturated fatty acid?
a. Oleic acid
b. Stearic acid
c. Linolenic acid
d. Arachidonic acid
stearic acid
What type of fatty acid is found in high amounts in olive oil?
a. Saturated
b. Monounsaturated
c. Polyunsaturated
d. Partially hydrogenated
monounsaturated
Which one of the following compounds is missing 4 or more hydrogen atoms?
a. Monounsaturated fatty acid
b. Polyunsaturated fatty acid
c. Long-chain saturated fatty acid
d. Short-chain saturated fatty acid
polyunsaturated fatty acid
Which of the following is a polyunsaturated fatty acid in foods?
a. Oleic acid
b. Acetic acid
c. Stearic acid
d. Linoleic acid
linoleic acid
Which of the following is a characteristic of lipids?
a. A quick way to spoil fats is by exposure to carbon dioxide
b. Typically, the shorter the carbon chain, the firmer the fat at 75°
c. Corn oil and sunflower are more prone to spoilage than palm kernel oil
d. Palm oil and coconut oil are very liquid due to their longer carbon chains
Corn oil and sunflower are more prone to spoilage than palm kernel oil
When stored at room temperature in loosely capped containers, which of the following dietary lipids would turn rancid in the shortest time?
a. Lard
b. Peanut oil
c. Soybean oil
d. Coconut oil
soybean oil
Which of the following has the highest percentage of its fat in polyunsaturated form?
a. Butter
b. Corn oil
c. Beef tallow
d. Coconut oil
corn oil
The food industry often carries out the process of hydrogenation on which of the following lipids?
a. Corn oil
b. Olive oil
c. Beef tallow
d. Coconut oil
corn oil
Which of the following is considered a major source of polyunsaturated fat?
a. Corn oil
b. Palm oil
c. Peanut oil
d. Chicken fat
corn oil
All of the following are rich sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids except
a. palm oil.
b. fish oils.
c. soybean oil.
d. safflower oil.
palm oil
Which of the following is a feature of choline?
a. It is a part of lecithin
b. It is a type of cis-fatty acid
c. It is a type of trans-fatty acid
d. It is attached to omega-3 fatty acids
it is a part of lecitin
A characteristic of lecithin supplements is they
a. are mostly hydrolyzed in the intestine.
b. contribute small amounts of magnesium.
c. have an energy content of 4 kcalories per gram.
d. contribute large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids.
are mostly hydrolzyed in the intenstine
Which of the following is not a feature of lecithin?
a. Widespread in foods
b. Found in cell membranes
c. Manufactured by the body
d. Dietary supplements inhibit fat absorption
dietary supplement inhibit fat absoprtion
What is the approximate energy value of one teaspoon of liquid lecithin supplement?
a. 0 kcal
b. 2 kcal
c. 45 kcal
d. 200 kcal
45 kcal
What is the major sterol in the diet?
a. Palm oil
b. Lecithin
c. Cholesterol
d. Arachidonic acid
cholesterol
Which of the following is a feature of cholesterol?
a. Only about 10% of the body's total cholesterol is extracellular
b. "Bad" cholesterol is a form of cholesterol found in plant foods
c. "Good" cholesterol is a form of cholesterol found in plant foods
d. Exogenous cholesterol absorption is reduced by lecithin supplements
Only about 10% of the body's total cholesterol is extracellular
What lipoprotein is largest in size?
a. Chylomicron
b. High-density lipoprotein
c. Low-density lipoprotein
d. Very-low-density lipoprotein
chylomicron
Which of the following is used by the body to synthesize arachidonic acid?
a. Oleic acid
b. Linoleic acid
c. Palmitic acid
d. Linolenic acid
lineolic acid
What are the precursor for synthesis of the eicosanoids?
a. Steroids
b. Short-chain fatty acids
c. Medium-chain saturated fatty acids
d. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids
long chain
Which of the following is a feature of fat intake and health?
a. Intake of saturated fat raises blood cholesterol more than intake of cholesterol
b. High intakes of fish oil lower bleeding time and improve diabetes and wound healing
c. High intakes of short- and medium-chain fatty acids raise high-density lipoprotein levels
d. Trans-fatty acids contained in polyunsaturated fats but not in monounsaturated fats alter blood cholesterol levels
Intake of saturated fat raises blood cholesterol more than intake of cholesterol
According to the Dietary Guidelines, what should be the maximum total fat intake as a percentage of energy intake?
a. 10
b. 20
c. 35
d. 50
35
Which of the following is a polyunsaturated fatty acid in foods?
a. Oleic acid
b. Acetic acid
c. Stearic acid
d. Linoleic acid
linolic acid
Which of the following has the highest percentage of its fat in saturated form?
a. Butter
b. Walnut oil
c. Beef tallow
d. Coconut oil
coconut oil
Which of the following provides abundant amounts of omega-3 fatty acids?
a. Palm oil
b. Walnut oil
c. Soybean oil
d. Flaxseed oil
flaxseed oil
The food industry often carries out the process of hydrogenation on which of the following lipids?
a. Corn oil
b. Olive oil
c. Beef tallow
d. Coconut oil
corn oil
All of the following are rich sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids except
a. palm oil.
b. fish oils.
c. soybean oil.
d. safflower oil.
palm oil
Which of the following is a feature of choline?
a. It is a part of lecithin
b. It is a type of cis-fatty acid
c. It is a type of trans-fatty acid
d. It is attached to omega-3 fatty acids
it is a part of lecithin
A characteristic of lecithin supplements is they
a. are mostly hydrolyzed in the intestine.
b. contribute small amounts of magnesium.
c. have an energy content of 4 kcalories per gram.
d. contribute large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids.
are mostly hydrolyzed in the intestine
Which of the following is not a feature of lecithin?
a. Widespread in foods
b. Found in cell membranes
c. Manufactured by the body
d. Dietary supplements inhibit fat absorption
dietary supplements inhibit fat absorption
A common feature of the plant sterols is they
a. raise LDL and lower HDL.
b. inhibit absorption of dietary cholesterol.
c. inhibit absorption of "bad" cholesterol.
d. enhance absorption of omega-3 fatty acids.
inhibit absorption of dietary cholesterol.
Which of the following is characteristic of the lipase enzymes?
a. Gastric lipase plays a significant role in fat digestion in adults
b. Intestinal mucosal lipase is responsible for most dietary fat digestion
c. Salivary gland lipase (lingual lipase) plays an active role in fat digestion in infants
d. Pancreatic lipase hydrolyzes most dietary triglycerides completely to glycerol and free fatty acids
Salivary gland lipase (lingual lipase) plays an active role in fat digestion in infants
Which of the following is not a feature of the bile acids?
a. Stored in the gallbladder
b. Synthesized from cholesterol
c. Manufactured by the gallbladder
d. Released into the small intestine whenever fat is present
manufactured by the gallbladder
Which of the following is an omega-3 fat?
a. Acetic acid
b. Palmitic acid
c. Linoleic acid
d. Docosahexaenoic acid
docasahexaenoic acid
When consumed regularly, which of the following fatty acids helps prevent the formation of blood clots?
a. Oleic acid
b. Stearic acid
c. Arachidonic acid
d. Eicosapentaenoic acid
Eicosapentaenoic acid
When consumed regularly, which of the following fatty acids helps prevent the formation of blood clots?
a. Oleic acid
b. Stearic acid
c. Arachidonic acid
d. Eicosapentaenoic acid
Eicosapentaenoic acid
Which of the following is a polyunsaturated fatty acid in foods?
a. Oleic acid
b. Acetic acid
c. Stearic acid
d. Linoleic acid
lineolic acid
Typical dietary sources of carbohydrate include all of the following except
a. starch.
b. maltose.
c. phytates.
d. glycogen.
glycogen
What percentage of the world's adult population shows good tolerance to lactose ingestion?
a. 30
b. 55
c. 80
d. 95
30
Approximately how many kcalories are provided by two teaspoons of sugar?
a. 10
b. 20
c. 30
d. 40
30
In general, modifying a diet that by substituting complex carbohydrates for pure sugars results in a diet that is higher in
a. fat.
b. fiber.
c. energy.
d. refined foods.
fiber
What is the DRI for fiber for a person consuming 2500 kcalories?
a. 5 g
b. 15 g
c. 25 g
d. 35 g
35