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SPA 3002: Adult Language Disorders & Cognitive-Based Dysfunction
Terms in this set (35)
What is aphasia?
-language disorder that's acquired sometime after an individual has injury of some sort to the brain
What are some common causes of aphasia?
exposure to toxins
nutritional or metabolic disorder
What is taxonomy?
A manner of classifying aphasia by using the characteristics that most differentiate each type of aphasia from each other
What does taxonomy use to differentiate each type of aphasia from one another?
The site of the lesion
Language disturbance patterns
What is fluency?
The forward flow of speech
(i.e. phrasing, intonation, rate)
What are characteristics of nonfluent aphasia?
-short, choppy phrases
-slow, labored production of speech
What type of brain injury does nonfluent aphasia usually correlate with?
Frontal lobe injury
What is receptive aphasia?
Difficulty in understanding spoken language
What site of brain injury does receptive aphasia usually correlate with?
Temporal lobe injury
What is naming?
The ability to retrieve and produce a target word during conversation
What is anomia?
What is paraphasia?
patterns of word production errors in aphasia
What is phonemic paraphasia? What type of aphasia is it usually more prevalent in?
-substitution of a sound in a word
(i.e. "tofa" for "sofa")
-Nonfluent, expressive aphasia
What is semantic paraphasia? What type of aphasia is it usually more prevalent in?
-substitution of a word for the desired word
(i.e. "chair" for "sofa")
-Fluent, receptive aphasia
What are the 7 major types of aphasia?
2) Transcortical Motor
5) Transcortical Sensory
Where is the site of lesion for Broca's aphasia? What are some characteristics of Broca's aphasia?
-Frontal lobe (Broca's area)
-impaired speech, nonfluent speech, short phrases, hard to comprehend speech, poor reading & writing, poor naming
-omit small words like "The" "to"
Where is the site of lesion for Transcortical Motor aphasia? What are some characteristics of this type?
-superior and anterior portions of the frontal lobe
-nonfluent speech, hard to comprehend, repetition is much better than spontaneous speech*
Where is the site of lesion for Global aphasia? What are some characteristics of this type?
-diffuse damage in language-dominant hemisphere
-severe problems in all domains of language; understanding is very impaired; reading & writing very impaired
Where is the site of lesion for Wernicke's aphasia? What are some characteristics of this type?
-superior & anterior portions of temporal lobe (Wernicke's area)
-fluent speech, jargon, comprehension very impaired
-speak in long sentences that have no meaning with random words
(ex: "You know that smoodle pinkered and that I want to get him round and take care of him like you want before.")
What is the site of lesion for Transcortical Sensory aphasia? What are some characteristics of this type?
-border of temporal & occipital lobe
-fluent speech, poor comprehension and understanding others, repetition is good
What is the site of lesion for Conduction aphasia? What are some characteristics of this type?
-fluent speech, severely impaired repetition, difficulty reading aloud
What is Anomic aphasia? What are some characteristics of this type?
-fluent speech, severely impaired naming
What is differential aphasia?
Aphasia profile is different between languages
(i.e. Person has aphasia in English, but not in Spanish)
What is differential impairment?
When one language is more impaired than the other
What is parallel impairment?
Similar language patterns across languages
What is blended impairment?
When the features of two languages are mixed
What are some characteristics of Right-Hemisphere Dysfunction?
-lack of awareness of their disorder
-neglect of the left side of the body/environment
-difficulty recognizing faces
-extra words during communication
What is Tramautic Brain Injury?
damage to the brain resulting from the impact of external forces
What are the 3 types of TBI?
1) Open head
What is open-headed TBI?
skull and meninges have been penterated
What is closed-head TBI?
brain is jolted inside the head
What is polytrauma TBI?
-combo of open head and closed-head TBIs along with other medical issues and PTSD
-results of military injuries
What are the characteristics of psychosocial TBI?
-express and understand emotions
-motivation to communicate
What are the characteristics of cognitive TBI?
What are the characteristics of language TBI?
-all domains of language
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