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valence electrons

Elements within the same group of the periodic table behave similarly because they have the same number of ________.


The _________ number of a representative element indicates how many valence electrons the element has.

electron dot structures

Diagrams that show valence electrons as dots are called ___________.

octet rule

Gilbert Lewis' _________ states that in forming compounds, atoms tend to achieve the electron configuration of a noble gas.

cations... anions

The transfer of valence electrons produces positively charged ions, or _________, and negatively charged ions called _________.


The cations of Group 1A elements always have a charge of __.

Halide ions... gain

_________ are produced when atoms of the elements in in Group 7A _________ an electron.


For transition metals, the _________ of cations may vary.


The chlorine atom gains seven electrons when it becomes an ion.


The chemical properties of an element are largely determined by the number of valence electrons the element has.


Atoms acquire the stable electron structure of a noble gas by losing electrons.


An atom of an element in Group 1A has seven valance electrons.


Among the Group 1A and 2A elements, the group number of each element is equal to the number of valence electrons in an atom of that element.


Sulfur and magnesium both have two valance electrons.

electron dot structure

a depiction of valence electrons around the symbol of an element

valence electrons

an electron in the highest occupied energy level of an element's atom

octet rule

atoms in compounds tend to have the electron configuration of a noble gas


atoms or groups of atoms with a positive charge


atoms or groups of atoms with a negative charge

halide ions

ions that are produced when halogens gain electrons

chloride ion

has the electron configuration of argon

electrostatic force

Anions and cations attract one another by means of _________.

oppositely... ionic bonds

The forces of attraction that hold _________ charged ions together in ionic compounds are called _________.


Although they are composed of ions, ionic compounds are electrically _________.

formula unit

The lowest whole-number ratio of an ionic compound is called a _________.


Nearly all ionic compounds are solid _________ at room temperature.


Ionic compounds in general have very _________ melting temperatures.

large... stable

Ionic compounds have high melting temperatures because the _________ attractive forces between the ions result in a very _________ structure.


Ionic compounds conduct an electric current when in the _________ state or dissolved in water.


During the formation of the compound NaCl, one electron is transferred from a sodium atom to a chlorine atom.


The coordination number of an ion is the number of ions of positive charge that surround the ion in a crystal.


The coordination number of the ion Na(+) in NaCl is 6.


In forming an ionic compound, an atom of an element gains electrons.


Ionic compounds cannot conduct electricity if they are dissolved in water.

ionic compounds

compounds composed of cations and anions

ionic bonds

the electrostatic forces of attraction binding oppositely charged ions together

chemical formula

shows the kinds of numbers of atoms in the smallest representative unit of a substance

formula unit

lowest whole number ratio of ions in an ionic compound

coordination number

the number of ions of opposite charge surrounding each ion in a crystal

cations... electrons

Metals consist of closely packed _________ that are surrounded by a sea of _________.


This arrangement constitutes the _________ bond.

electrical... ductile... malleable

The electron mobility accounts for the excellent _________ conductivity of metals and helps explain why metals are _________ and _________.


When two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, are mixed together, the resulting mixture is called an _________.


In a body-centered cubic structure, each atom has 12 neighbors.


Metallic objects are formed from pure metals.


Metals that are good conductors of electricity are said to be ductile.


Drifting valence electrons insulate cations from one another and contribute to the malleability of a metal.


Metals are good conductors of electricity because the electrons can flow freely in them.


can be drawn into wires

metallic bonds

the attraction of valence electrons for positive metal ions


mixture of two or more elements, at least one which is a metal


can be hammered or forced into shapes

interstitial alloy

an alloy whose component atoms are different sizes

non atomic

Ions that consist of a single atom are called _________ ions.


Metallic elements tend to _________.

1+... 2+... 3+

Groups 1A ions have a __ charge, whereas Group 2A metals form ions with a __ charge, and Group 3A metals form ions with a __ charge.


The charges of a Group A nonmetal ion is determined by subtracting __.


Group 7A elements for ions with a charge of __.

transition metals... stock... classical

Many of the _________ have more than one common ionic charge. These ions are named either the _________ system or the _________ naming system.

poly atomic

Ions containing more that one atom are called _________ ions.

-ite... -ate

The names of most common polyatomic ions end in either ___ or ___.


The names of polyatomic ions end in -ite or -ate.


In polyatomic ions for which there is an ite/ate pair, the -ite ending will always indicate one less oxygen atom that the ate ending.


Polyatomic ions are anions.


The charge on Group A metal ions is determined by subtracting the group number from 8.


The Group 6A ions have a charge of 2-

ions formed from groups of ions

polyatomic ions

a traditional way of naming transition metal cations

classical naming system

cation... anion

Binary ionic compounds are named by writing the name of the _________ followed by the name of the _________.


Names of binary compounds end in ___.

sodium oxide

NaI is _________.

roman numeral

When a cation has more than one ionic charge, a _________ is used in the name.

anion... oxygen

Compounds with polyatomic ions whose names end in -ite or -ate contain a polyatomic _________ that includes _________.


In writing the formula of an ionic compound, the net ionic charge must be __.


The systematic name for backing soda (NaHCO(3)) is sodium bicarbonate.


In writing a formula for an ionic compound, the net ionic charge of the formula must be zero.


Anions that contain oxygen end in -ite or -ate.


The cation name is placed first when naming ionic compounds.

binary compounds

ionic compounds composed of two elements

non atomic ions

ions that consist of a single atom

transition metals

Group B metals, many of which have more than one common ionic charge

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