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pharmacology ch 10

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Pharmacology
A broad term that includes the study of drugs and their actions in the body.
Pharmacy
The art of preparing, compounding, and dispensing drugs for medical use.
Toxicology
The science that deals with poisons-- their detection and symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of the condition caused by them.
Biotechnology
The field of pharmacology that involves using living cells, usually altered cultures of Escherichia coli, to manufacture drugs.
Drug
Any substance used as medicine (e.g.used to diagnose, cure, mitigate, treat, or prevent disease).
Include 4 categories chemical, plant part,animal, and certain food products.
Chemical substances
agents that may be made synthetically (e.g., sulfonamides, aspirin, sodium bicarbonate)
Plant parts or products
crude drugs that may be obtained from any part of the various plants and used medicinally. (e.g.; leaves, bark , fruit, roots, rhizomes, resin)
Animal products
Primarily glandular products that are currently obtained from animal sources (e.g. thyroid hormone, insulin)
Certain food substances
Substances that under some conditions serve both as food and medicinal substances (I.e, vitamins and minerals, various foods)
Additive effect
the combined effect of two drugs that is equal to the sum of the effects of each drug taken alone
Adverse or untoward effect
an action, usually negative, that is different from the planned effect
Allergic reaction
An untoward reaction that develops after the individual has taken a drug.
Analog
A chemical compund that resembles another in structure but has different effects.
Antagonism
The combined effect of two drugs that is less then the effect of either drug taken alone.
Biosynthesis
Formation of a chemical compound by enzymes, either within the organism (in vivo) or in vitro by fragments of cells.
Depression
A decrease in activity of cells caused by the action of a drug.
Diagnostic
Pertaining to the art or act of determining the nature of a patients disease.
Idiosyncrasy
Abnormal sensitivity to a drug, or a reaction not intended.
Palliative
An agent or measure that relieves symptoms.
Potentiation
An effect that occurs when a drug increases or prolongs the action of another drug, the total effect being greater than the sum of the effects used alone.
Prophylactic
An agent or measure used to prevent disease.
Side effect
An unpredictable effect that is not related to the main action of the drug.
Stimulation
An increase in the activity of cells produced by drugs.
Synergism
The joint actions of agents in which their combined effect is more intense or longer in duration than the sum of the individual effects.
Therapeutic
Pertaining to the treatment of disease.
Tolerance
Increasing resistance to the usual effects of an established dosage of a drug as result of continued use.