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racing horse injured during the Preakness

Kennett Square

Barbaro was sent to the New Bolton Center in ______ _______, PA in hopes of being healed; mushroom capital of the world

horse poop

a perfect mushroom substrate produced in Kennett Square, PA

major cities

Kennett Square, PA's promiximity to ______ ______ accommodates the short shelf life of mushrooms


grown by Quakers in conjunction with mushrooms

Agaricus bisporus

button mushroom

obtain good compost

first step in growing mushrooms


examples of ______ include horse manure, corn cobs, brewer's waste, cotton seed meal, soy beans, castor oil cake

find a dark place

second step in growing mushrooms

room temperature

ideal temperature for mushroom growing

obtain wooden racks

third step in growing mushrooms; optimizes space

clean compost

fourth step in growing mushrooms


compost is disinfected with _______

add spawn

fifth step in growing mushrooms


fungal mycelium

add casing

sixth step in growing mushrooms


peat and limestone layer; forces fungus to reach manure

24; 5

seventh step in growing mushrooms; keeping the mushrooms at ______ degrees for _____ days


production of baby mushrooms

24 hrs

time it takes for a baby mushroom to grow to full size


a mushroom cell can swell up to _____ times its size

harvest the mushrooms

eighth step in growing mushrooms


harvesting mushrooms


mushroom production is hard to be ______ because mushrooms grow in every direction

Package and send off

ninth and final step in growing mushrooms; must be done the same day the mushrooms are picked


a problem with the mushroom industry that consists of a fungus attacking another fungus


a problem with the mushroom industry that consists of a challenge to fresh market production


a problem with the mushroom industry that consists of early morning shifts and poor wages


mushrooms are low in calories, fat, and carbs, but are high in _______

lysine; tryptophan

mushrooms are rich in amino acids such as ______ and _______


mushrooms have little ________-containing compounds in them


mushrooms are a good source of _____ vitamins and minerals


eating too many mushrooms will cause an excess intake of ______ which sets off the digestive system

benzenediazonium ions

raw mushrooms contain carcinogenic, toxic ions known as _______ _______

Psathyrella aquatica

the underwater mushroom

get the right tools

step one to collecting mushrooms


tool used to hold collected mushrooms; holes allow for the continual spread of spores

paper bags/wax paper

tools used in mushroom hunting that keep specimen separate while allowing air to pass


tool used in mushroom hunting that is used to dig the mushroom out of the ground


tool used in mushroom hunting to take pictures, look up mushrooms, and determine location

paper and pen

tools used in mushroom hunting used to draw specimen


structure in mushrooms that is indicative of containing poison; egg-shaped and connected to the mycelium

dig, don't pick

step two to collecting mushrooms

separate the mushrooms

step three to collecting mushrooms; keeps edible ones apart form poisonous ones

get a field guide and learn Latin names

step four to collecting mushrooms

consult an expert before consuming

fifth and final step to collecting mushrooms

Boyne City

______ ______, MI is the site of the annual Morel Mushroom Hunting championships


morels are in the _______ phylum


morels are in the _______ genus


the price of morels by the pound


ideal month to hunt for morels


true morels are _______

soft tissue

false morels are filled with _______ ________


the compound contained in false morels that turns into rocket fuel

throw it out

morel rule #1; when in doubt _____ _____ _____

don't swallow

morel rule #2; if it ain't hollow ______ ______

you could be deadish

morel rule #3; if it's reddish ______ ______ ______ ______


Michigan state record for # of morels in 90 minutes

pine; apple

morels have an intimate association with these two types of trees

tree roots

truffles have a symbiotic relationship with ______ ______ and are consequently found underground


the strong feet smell given off by truffles is attributed to ________


the hormones of truffles are the same as the sex hormones of ______ ; _______ are used to hunt these truffles because of the attraction


KiKi the ______ is a truffle hunter in France; often regarded as a better hunter than pigs because they do not eat the truffle

Buttermilk Falls

the story of Richard and his mushroom poisoning is set in _______ _______, Ithaca, NY

Amanita virosa

"the destroying angel;" all white; the cause of Richard's mushroom poisoning


group 1 of mushroom toxins

50; 95

Amatoxins make up ______ percent of all mushroom poisonings and ______ percent of all fatalities

Amanita, Galerina

these 2 fungal genera make up Amatoxins


Amatoxins bind to the cells' nucleus and shuts down the synthesis of ______


first symptom of amatoxin poisoning; lasts 6-24 hrs; feels fine but liver, kidney, and intestines are being attacked

vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain

second symptom of amatoxin poisoning; lasts for a day or so


third symptom of amatoxin poisoning; feel better

kidney, liver, brain, heart

the final symptom of amatoxin poisoning; collapse of the _____ and ______; loss of ______ and _______ functions resulting in death

Meixner test

used to diagnose Amatoxin poisoning; involves ground up samples of the mushroom, newspaper, and HCl; blue=amatoxins

dialysis, perfusion

removal of amatoxin can be performed through _____ or _____


removal of amatoxin can be performed through the increase of fluids and increased excretion of toxins through _______

Bastien treatment

heavy doses of vitamin c, nifuroxazide, and streptomycin


group 2 of mushroom toxins

2, 4

methylhydrazine poisoning represents _____ to ______ percent of fatalities

Gyromitra esculenta

false morels; have soft tissue inside


false morels are not safe to cook because they have toxic _____

threshold level

each person who consumes methylhydrazine has a different ______ ______ at which they die after having consumed a certain amount of methylhydrazine

2, 12

_____ to ______ hours after consuming methylhydrazine, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and faintness


consuming methylhydrazine has more serious affects such as loss of muscular control, fever, jaundice, convulsions, or a comatose state which can result in death in as little as ____ days


group 3 of mushroom toxins; rarely fatal

Inocybe, Clitocybe

the 2 genuses of the muscarine toxins

endocrine, lachyrimation

muscarine poisoning stimulates the ______ glands resulting in perspiration, salivation, and _______


consuming muscarine poison has more serious affects such as blurred vision, muscle spasms, diarrhea, vomiting, heart beat slowing, drop in blood pressure that can ensue in as little as ____ hours


a drug that aids in the treatment of muscarine poisoning

Panellus stipicus

Bitter Oyster Mushroom

Wang Junxia

professional record-breaking Chinese runner that attributes increased endurance to caterpillar fungus

Cordyceps sinensis

caterpillar fungus; attacks caterpillars and sporulates to produce a fruting body at the end of the caterpillar


caterpillar fungus improves ______ function


caterpillar fungus increases cellular oxygen absorption by up to _____ percent


caterpillar fungus reduces ______ and improves endurance and stamina

kidneys, liver, heart

caterpillar fungus is good for your _____, _____, and _____


caterpillar fungus improves sexual performance and is consequently known as the ______ fungus


a fermented tea and its mother


floating blob in Kombucha tea that is a symbiotic association between yeast and bacteria in the genuses Acetobacter, Saccharomyces, and Brettanomyces


_____ in Kombucha can absorb harmful elements form its container which is why it is preferably made in a glass or plastic container


Kombucha increases _____ and and improves vision ; prolongs sexual performance, increases appetite and helps digestion; lowers hypertension and stress

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