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101 terms

Midterm MM 2 Part 2

STUDY
PLAY
Barbaro
racing horse injured during the Preakness
Kennett Square
Barbaro was sent to the New Bolton Center in ______ _______, PA in hopes of being healed; mushroom capital of the world
horse poop
a perfect mushroom substrate produced in Kennett Square, PA
major cities
Kennett Square, PA's promiximity to ______ ______ accommodates the short shelf life of mushrooms
carnations
grown by Quakers in conjunction with mushrooms
Agaricus bisporus
button mushroom
obtain good compost
first step in growing mushrooms
compost
examples of ______ include horse manure, corn cobs, brewer's waste, cotton seed meal, soy beans, castor oil cake
find a dark place
second step in growing mushrooms
room temperature
ideal temperature for mushroom growing
obtain wooden racks
third step in growing mushrooms; optimizes space
clean compost
fourth step in growing mushrooms
steam
compost is disinfected with _______
add spawn
fifth step in growing mushrooms
spawn
fungal mycelium
add casing
sixth step in growing mushrooms
casing
peat and limestone layer; forces fungus to reach manure
24; 5
seventh step in growing mushrooms; keeping the mushrooms at ______ degrees for _____ days
pinning
production of baby mushrooms
24 hrs
time it takes for a baby mushroom to grow to full size
80
a mushroom cell can swell up to _____ times its size
harvest the mushrooms
eighth step in growing mushrooms
cropping
harvesting mushrooms
mechanized
mushroom production is hard to be ______ because mushrooms grow in every direction
Package and send off
ninth and final step in growing mushrooms; must be done the same day the mushrooms are picked
disease
a problem with the mushroom industry that consists of a fungus attacking another fungus
canned
a problem with the mushroom industry that consists of a challenge to fresh market production
labor
a problem with the mushroom industry that consists of early morning shifts and poor wages
protein
mushrooms are low in calories, fat, and carbs, but are high in _______
lysine; tryptophan
mushrooms are rich in amino acids such as ______ and _______
sulfur
mushrooms have little ________-containing compounds in them
B
mushrooms are a good source of _____ vitamins and minerals
chitin
eating too many mushrooms will cause an excess intake of ______ which sets off the digestive system
benzenediazonium ions
raw mushrooms contain carcinogenic, toxic ions known as _______ _______
Psathyrella aquatica
the underwater mushroom
get the right tools
step one to collecting mushrooms
basket
tool used to hold collected mushrooms; holes allow for the continual spread of spores
paper bags/wax paper
tools used in mushroom hunting that keep specimen separate while allowing air to pass
shovel
tool used in mushroom hunting that is used to dig the mushroom out of the ground
phone
tool used in mushroom hunting to take pictures, look up mushrooms, and determine location
paper and pen
tools used in mushroom hunting used to draw specimen
vulva
structure in mushrooms that is indicative of containing poison; egg-shaped and connected to the mycelium
dig, don't pick
step two to collecting mushrooms
separate the mushrooms
step three to collecting mushrooms; keeps edible ones apart form poisonous ones
get a field guide and learn Latin names
step four to collecting mushrooms
consult an expert before consuming
fifth and final step to collecting mushrooms
Boyne City
______ ______, MI is the site of the annual Morel Mushroom Hunting championships
ascomycota
morels are in the _______ phylum
morchella
morels are in the _______ genus
109.99
the price of morels by the pound
May
ideal month to hunt for morels
hollow
true morels are _______
soft tissue
false morels are filled with _______ ________
methyl-hydrazine
the compound contained in false morels that turns into rocket fuel
throw it out
morel rule #1; when in doubt _____ _____ _____
don't swallow
morel rule #2; if it ain't hollow ______ ______
you could be deadish
morel rule #3; if it's reddish ______ ______ ______ ______
900
Michigan state record for # of morels in 90 minutes
pine; apple
morels have an intimate association with these two types of trees
tree roots
truffles have a symbiotic relationship with ______ ______ and are consequently found underground
hormones
the strong feet smell given off by truffles is attributed to ________
pigs
the hormones of truffles are the same as the sex hormones of ______ ; _______ are used to hunt these truffles because of the attraction
dog
KiKi the ______ is a truffle hunter in France; often regarded as a better hunter than pigs because they do not eat the truffle
Buttermilk Falls
the story of Richard and his mushroom poisoning is set in _______ _______, Ithaca, NY
Amanita virosa
"the destroying angel;" all white; the cause of Richard's mushroom poisoning
Amatoxins
group 1 of mushroom toxins
50; 95
Amatoxins make up ______ percent of all mushroom poisonings and ______ percent of all fatalities
Amanita, Galerina
these 2 fungal genera make up Amatoxins
RNA
Amatoxins bind to the cells' nucleus and shuts down the synthesis of ______
latency
first symptom of amatoxin poisoning; lasts 6-24 hrs; feels fine but liver, kidney, and intestines are being attacked
vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain
second symptom of amatoxin poisoning; lasts for a day or so
remission
third symptom of amatoxin poisoning; feel better
kidney, liver, brain, heart
the final symptom of amatoxin poisoning; collapse of the _____ and ______; loss of ______ and _______ functions resulting in death
Meixner test
used to diagnose Amatoxin poisoning; involves ground up samples of the mushroom, newspaper, and HCl; blue=amatoxins
dialysis, perfusion
removal of amatoxin can be performed through _____ or _____
urination
removal of amatoxin can be performed through the increase of fluids and increased excretion of toxins through _______
Bastien treatment
heavy doses of vitamin c, nifuroxazide, and streptomycin
methylhydrazine
group 2 of mushroom toxins
2, 4
methylhydrazine poisoning represents _____ to ______ percent of fatalities
Gyromitra esculenta
false morels; have soft tissue inside
vapors
false morels are not safe to cook because they have toxic _____
threshold level
each person who consumes methylhydrazine has a different ______ ______ at which they die after having consumed a certain amount of methylhydrazine
2, 12
_____ to ______ hours after consuming methylhydrazine, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and faintness
2
consuming methylhydrazine has more serious affects such as loss of muscular control, fever, jaundice, convulsions, or a comatose state which can result in death in as little as ____ days
muscarine
group 3 of mushroom toxins; rarely fatal
Inocybe, Clitocybe
the 2 genuses of the muscarine toxins
endocrine, lachyrimation
muscarine poisoning stimulates the ______ glands resulting in perspiration, salivation, and _______
2
consuming muscarine poison has more serious affects such as blurred vision, muscle spasms, diarrhea, vomiting, heart beat slowing, drop in blood pressure that can ensue in as little as ____ hours
atropine
a drug that aids in the treatment of muscarine poisoning
Panellus stipicus
Bitter Oyster Mushroom
Wang Junxia
professional record-breaking Chinese runner that attributes increased endurance to caterpillar fungus
Cordyceps sinensis
caterpillar fungus; attacks caterpillars and sporulates to produce a fruting body at the end of the caterpillar
respiratory
caterpillar fungus improves ______ function
50
caterpillar fungus increases cellular oxygen absorption by up to _____ percent
fatigue
caterpillar fungus reduces ______ and improves endurance and stamina
kidneys, liver, heart
caterpillar fungus is good for your _____, _____, and _____
viagra
caterpillar fungus improves sexual performance and is consequently known as the ______ fungus
Kombucha
a fermented tea and its mother
mother
floating blob in Kombucha tea that is a symbiotic association between yeast and bacteria in the genuses Acetobacter, Saccharomyces, and Brettanomyces
acid
_____ in Kombucha can absorb harmful elements form its container which is why it is preferably made in a glass or plastic container
longevity
Kombucha increases _____ and and improves vision ; prolongs sexual performance, increases appetite and helps digestion; lowers hypertension and stress