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Enlightenment, Capitalism and Communism and French Revolution

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1. What were the Three Estates and what percentage of the population was each?
1st .5%, 2nd 1.5%, 3rd 98%
What percentage of France was the First Estate?
.5%
What percentage of France was the Second Estate?
1.5%
What percentage of France was the Third Estate?
98%
Who was the First Estate?
The clergy (people who worked for the church)
Who was the Second Estate?
Nobles (rich)
Who was the Third Estate?
Everyone else (middle class and poor)
2. The Third Estate wanted a national ________________ where all people will be equal.
Constitution
Why did the Third Estate have to meet on a tennis court?
They were locked out of the meeting by the First and Second Estates.
What was the Tennis Court Oath?
We won't stop until France has a Constitution!
3. The storming of what French prison was the official start to the French Revolution?
Bastille
Why did the Third Estate storm the Bastille?
to free their friends who the king put in prison and to get weapons (the Bastille was also an armory)
What is France's independence day called?
Bastille Day
4. Who were the king of France and his wife during the French Revolution?
Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette
What did the French king and queen do when the people started to revolt?
They escaped to Versailles twice. (The second time they tried it they were caught)
Why were people revolting during the French Revolution?
They were starving. The government had wasted money and taxed them too much. The king was corrupt.
5. What does sans-culottes mean?
Without fancy pants. All the rich ppl wore culottes
What did the sans-coulottes do to the king?
They had him beheaded
What is the name of the device that chops head so efficiently?
Guillotine (GEE-uh-TEEN)
6. Marat was a supporter for the _____________. Charlotte ___________ killed him while he was in an ________________ bath because she thought the king was so awesome. (book example)
Revolution, Corday, oatmeal
Who killed Marat?
Charlotte Corday
Why was Marat killed?
He supported killing the king and his murderer still believed in divine right.
Who painted The Death of Marat?
David
How was Marat portrayed as a martyr in The Death of Marat?
He was shown to have died for a cause (like Jesus). He was smiling, still writing and looked buff.
8. What did Robespierre do in France in regards to religion? Give an example of what he did.
He banned religion in France and renamed the churches temples of reason
7. What was the Reign of Terror? Who was in charge of it? Give an example from either Nantes or Lyon.
It was a time of the revolutionaries killing all their dissenters
Who led the Reign of Terror?
Robespierre
What happened in Nantes? Why did it happen?
Robespierre that burned a ship of dissenters. He did it so everyone would know not to disagree with him.
9. What is nationalism? Why was the French revolutionary army a good example of nationalism?
Love for your country not one specific leader. They fought for their own freedom.
Give two reasons why Robespierre was removed and guillotined.
He got too greedy for power and he banned religion. People in France were pretty religious.
What is the American equivalent of nationalism?
Patriotism
What happened after Robespierre was killed.
The Directory (a weak government) took over
11. Who committed a coup detat on the new government (the Directory)?
Napoleon
What is a coup detat?
A quick overthrow of a government
Why was it easy for Napoleon to overthrow the government?
They were weak because the French Revolution had cost lots of money and lives.
12. How much power did Napoleon have in the new French government?
Total power. He called himself the emperor.
What was the Napoleonic Code?
It was a civil code of laws that gave everyone rights
Who didn't get rights in the Napoleonic Code?
Women
Describe the map of the French Empire in Europe
Almost all of Europe except England and RUS
Why didn't Napoleon take England?
He couldn't. They had a great navy.
15. Why did nationalism grow under Napoleon?
He either made Frenchmen proud of France's power or the people he took over felt united to fight back against him.
Why did Napoleon lose in Russia?
Russia kept retreating and burning its own cities. Napoleon kept following them and ran out of supplies and his troops froze.
What percent of his troops did Napoleon lose in Russia?
92%
After Russia, what happened to Napoleon?
He was fired and sent to Elba (an island off of Italy).
Where is Waterloo?
Belgium
What happened to Napoleon after he lost at Waterloo?
He was sent to St. Helena (an island in the literal middle of the Atlantic Ocean). He died there.
How do we use the term "Waterloo" today?
To describe something that finally defeats up.
Which economic system is based on individual profit?
Capitalism
Who owns the production in capitalism?
Individual
Who was the father of capitalism? Where was he from?
Adam Smith, Scotland
What was Smith's book called?
Wealth of Nations
What did Smith think was the role of the government in the economy?
It had no role. It should stay out of the economy.
Why did Smith say workers would work hard in factories?
To raise production, which raises profits, which raises their wages.
What is "the invisible hand"? How does it work?
The way the market balances itself out by shortages raising prices, which entices others to sell the product which brings prices back down and brings variety.
Why could competition in the market help people?
It keeps prices down and a wide variety.
What does laissez-faire translate to? What does it mean?
"let them do". It means that the government should let the marked be free and not interfere.
It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker that we expect our dinner, but from their regard to their own interest. - Smith, Wealth of Nations - What does that mean?
People don't sell you things because they like you, they do it for profit.
What are three criticism of capitalism?
Workers can be treated unfairly., Some people become very poor, Some must lose for some to win.
In communism, what does "To each according to their needs" mean?
Everyone will get what they need.
How does ownership work in communism?
Everyone shares everything. No one person owns anything.
Who is the father of communism? Where was he from?
Karl Marx, Germany
What did Marx think history was all about?
Class struggles. The poor man being kept down by the rich man.
What did Marx say about religion? What did that mean?
He said it was the "opiate of the people" which means that people focus on religion and the afterlife when they should be fighting for this life. He saw religion as something that the rich invented to keep the peasants down.
What is the proletariat?
The working class
What is the bourgeoisie?
The land and factory owners
What did Marx say would happen among the proletariat and the bourgeoisie?
A war would happen with the proletariat winning. Then, everyone would be equal and there would be no government or social classes.
What are four criticism of Marx's Ideas?
In the 20th century, it is estimated that 50 million people were killed in the name of communism. Most of Marx's predictions haven't came true yet. It is inconsistent with human nature. It degrades religion.
What is the difference between socialism communism?
In both, the government (people) control the resources. In socialism, the goods are distributed based on how hard you work. In communism, the goods are distributed equally to everyone. Socialism is a temporary stepping-stone to get to communism.
What did Marx say was the history of economic systems throughout history?
primitive communism > capitalism > socialism > communism
What is primitive communism?
Before people began farming, they hunted and gathered and shared what they had like a family. Marx says this was pure communism and we need to return to this.
What did Marx say would be the final economic system?
Communism
4. Who was the first to come up with a heliocentric universe? What does heliocentric mean?
Copernicus/sun-centered
3. Name two reasons the Church didn't like Galileo's ideas about the universe.
Earth not at center = ppl not important. Bible puts ppl as most important.
4. Who discovered gravity? What one-word title is his book known as?
Isaac Newton/ Principia
11. What was the Enlightenment?
Using the scientific method to solve social problems
12. Why is Diderot important in history?
Invented Encyclopedia
15. What was Mary Wollstonecraft known for? What did she argue for?
First modern feminist/equal education for women
What is the difference between heliocentric and geocentric solar systems?
Heliocentric means the sun is in the center. Geocentric means the sun is in the center.
Which English philosopher thought most people agood and will do the right thing?
Locke
Which English philosopher thought most people are bad and will do the wrong thing?
Hobbes
Locke or Hobbes? People need more rights?
Locke
Locke or Hobbes? People should be able to have guns?
Locke
Locke or Hobbes? The government should control the people?
Hobbes
Locke or Hobbes? Would probably be a Democrat or a liberal today?
Locke
Lock or Hobbes? The government shouldn't force people to wear their seatbelts?
Locke
Locke or Hobbes? If the government is doing bad things, you should overthrow it?
Locke
Locke or Hobbes? Welfare and Social Security checks are bad?
Hobbes
Locke or Hobbes? We should only pay very few taxes?
Locke
Which philosopher came up with the idea that leads to modern conservative thought?
Hobbes
Which philosopher came up with the idea that leads to modern liberal thought?
Locke
Who came up with the scientific method?
Bacon
Who came up with the three branches of government? He was French.
Montesquieu
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