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Found that the % of Adenine almost = the % of Thymine and that the % of Cytosine almost = the % of Guanine
Watson and Crick
proved DNA structure, Purines to Pyrimidine, Adenine and Thymine have 2 H bonds & cytosine and guanine had 3 H bonds
composed of two separate single strands of nucleotides held together by H bonding between nitrogenous bases.
each of the 2 new replicate "daughter strands" contains Y2 of the original nucleotides and Y2 new nucleotides.
Step 1 to DS DNA replication
Helicases attatch to the DS DNA origin sites and can move in either direction breaking H bonds
Step 2 to DS DNA replication
Single Stranded Binding Protiens (SSB's) follow the helicase and keep the H bonds from bonding back up.
Step 3 of DS DNA replication
Primase adds small segments of single stranded RNA to act as a "primer" and get the additional nucleotides started.
Step 4 of DS DNA replication
The leading strand is where the enzyme DNA polymerase links to the primer and adds new nucleotides in the direction of replication.
Step 5 of DS DNA replication
The lagging strand is the strand in which dna polymerase must work away from the actual direction of replication, and DNA ligase links okazaki fragments so that there is a continuous double stranded DNA.
based on mRNA nucleotides, Triplet code-3 bases required to specify one of 20 possible amino acids
base is either inserted or deleted from a gene. Every codon downstream gets altered. (very damaging)
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