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45 terms

Accountants and accounting information

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Accounting
comprehensive system for collecting, analyzing and communicating financial information to owners, employees, the public and regulatory agencies
Bookkeeping
Recording of accounting transactions
Accounting Information System
Organized procedure for identifying, measuring, recording and retaining financial information for use in accounting statements and management reports
Financial Accounting
Field concerned with external information users: consumer groups, unions, stockholders, suppliers, creditors and government agencies. Prepare income statements — balance sheets that focus on company as a whole.
Managerial Accounting
Serves internal users by providing information to make decisions, monitor projects and plan future activities.
Certified Public Accountants
Licensed by the state and work as individual practitioners, or may join or form partnerships. They provide auditing, tax and management services.
Private accountants
Salaried person hired by a business to carry out day-to-day financial activities
Management accountants
Type of private accountant who provides financial services to support managers in various business activities within a firm. Receive CMA designation from IMA.
Forensic accountants
Accounting for legal purposes like investigative work and litigation support.
Certified Fraud Examiners
Those with qualifications for a specialty area within forensic accounting, hired by firms to prevent fraud from within.
Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
Enactment of federal regulations to restore public trust in accounting practices by imposing new requirements on financial activities in publicly traded corporations. Restricts nonaudit services, encourages independent audits,
The accounting equation
assets = liabilities + owner's equity or assets - liabilities = owner's equity
assets
Any economic resource expected to benefit a firm or an individual who owns it. Ie, land, buildings or equipment
liability
debt owed by a firm to an outside organization or individual
owner's equity
amount of money owners would receive if they sold all assets and paid all liabilities. More of this = better security for investors. Includes the original investment and profits made.
Financial Statements
Any of several types of reports summarizing a company's financial status to stakeholders and to aid in managerial decision making.
Balance sheets
Financial statement that supplies detailed information about a firm's assets, liabilities and owner's equity. Statement of financial position.
Current assets
Those that will or can be converted into cash in one year.
Liquidity
Ease of converting an asset into cash. Includes cash itself, marketable securities and merchandise inventory
Fixed assets
Those with long-term use or value, ie land, buildings or equipment
depreciation
method for distributing cost of an asset over its useful life.
Intangible assets
Nonphysical, ie patent or trademark that has economic value in the form of expected benefit
Goodwill
Amount paid for an existing business above value of other, tangible assets.
Current liabilities
Debt that must be paid within one year. Accounts payable - bills, wages, taxes.
Long term liabilities
Debt not due for at least one year. These have interest.
Paid-in-capital
Type of owner's equity, money invested in a company by its owners
Retained earnings
Type of owner's equity, kept by a firm for use rather than paid out as dividends to shareholders
Income statement
Profit and loss statement that covers a period of time, like a video. Revenues - expenses = profit
Revenues
One aspect of income statement, funds flowing into a business for sale of goods or services.
Cost of revenues
One aspect of income statement, incurred to obtain revenues from other companies. Includes cost of goods sold (money paid for intermediate goods) and gross profit (quick to calculate. firms revenues - cost of revenues)
Operating expenses
One aspect of income statement, money it takes to run the business
Operating income
One aspect of income statement equaling gross profit - operating expenses
Net income
Gross profit - operating expenses and income taxes
Statement of cash flows
Discribes firms' yearly cash receipts and cash payments from operations, investing and financing. Like a photo
Budget
detailed statement of estimated receipts and expenditures for a future period of time. (Either one, three or five years)
Revenue recognition
Formal recording and reporting of revenues at end of earnings cycle.
Full disclosure
Guideline that financial statements should not include just numbers alone but should also furnish management's interpretations and explanations.
Solvency ratio
Financial ratio, either short or long term, for estimating the borrower's ability to repay debt
Profitability ratio
Financial ratio for measuring a firm's potential earnings
Activity ratio
Financial ratio for evaluating management's efficiency in using a firm's assets
Short-term solvency ratio
Financial ratio for measuring a company's ability to pay immediate debts
Current ratio
Financial ratio for measuring a company's ability to pay current debts out of current assets. Current assets/Current liabilities
Debt
A company's total liabilities
Leverage
Ability to finance an investment through borrowed funds
Earnings per share
Profitability ratio measuring the net profit that the company earns for each share of outstanding stock. Net income/Number of common shares outstanding