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59 terms

Latin American Geography Exam 1

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Caldera
Volcano created lake
Gilbert White
Engineering solution alone tend to make hazards worse
Lahar
Flash flood from volcano melting ice caps
Nuee Ardente
High velocity ash and hot gases
Limestone
Rock rich in calcium
Loess
Dust from the Andes
Karst Topography
Limestone rocks dissolved by acid rain to create caves, sinkholes, and springs
Oxisol
Red soil resulting from rusted iron or aluminum
Parana Lava Flow
Triggered by asteroid impact
Shields
Old rock resistant to erosion
Tepuy
Isolated ridges/mesa in highlands
Terraces
Step farming used to reduce erosion and water runoff
Pangaea
All continents joined to form super continent
Terror Birds
Top predator after dinosaurs died
Intertropical Convergence Zone
North and south winds converge and condense into clouds producing rain
Norte
Cold from form North America
Canopy
Highest layer of forest that has most wildlife
Compaction risk of Oxisols
Creation of claypan
Dark Earth
Improved oxisols by incorporating organic matter into it
Fallow
Allowing farmed area to go back into forest
Ironstone
Hard brick substance formed from exposed oxisols
Manioc
Tall plant, harvested for roots
Plinthite
Layer of iron oxide
Swidden
Traditional slash and burn farming
Beringia land bridge
land bridge from Siberia to Alaska
Carl Ortwin Sauer
Founder of Berkeley School of Geography,. Focused on cultural landscape
Ice-free Corridor
Ice sheets oped up east of Rocky mountain in Canada
Shamanism
Religious experts have personal vision quest involving dream/drugs
Factors best define Latin America
Culture, Language, Environment, Religion
Steps to lessen hazards of Volcanoes
Monitoring, public education, hazard mapping
Volcano resources
Good soil, scenic, building materials
Volcano hazards
Gases, Bombs, Ashe, lahars, nuee ardente
Mountain resources
Moderate temperatures, water, fresh soil
Mountain hazards
frost, low air pressure, steep slopes, earthquakes
Highland resources
Water, minerals, hydroelectric potential
Highland problems
Soil compaction, lack of nutrients, and ironstone, droughts
Steps to lessen problems of Highlands
No heavy machinery, test for philphite, paddy fields and swidden farming, fertilizer
.Lowland resources
Rich fertile soils
Impacts of Parana Lava Flow
Fertile soil in highland, create similar species in Africa/south America
Geography is the study of
Earth's surface and its inhabitants
Methods Geographers use
Maps, methods, and field work
Alexander von Humboldt
German naturalist who, founder of climatology and ecology of Latin America
Guano
Seabird excrement used as fertilizer
Coffee grows best in
Tierra Templada
Sertao (Drought Polygon)
Drought every few years in Brazil
Friagem
Cold front in Brazil
Tierra Caliente
Lowlands, 80 @ day, 70 @ night ex) Rio de Janerio
Tierra Fria
Mountains, 50/60 @ day, 40/30 @ night, possible frost ex) Mexico City, La Paz
Tierra Helada
Frozen lands, no agriculture, few settlements
Tierra Templada
Highlands, 70@ day, 60@ night, ex) San Jose, Guatemala City
Trade Winds
Easterlies
Tropics
Between 30 degrees north and south, between tropics of Cancer and Capricorn
Armadillos
Migrated from South America
Capybara
Giant rodent of South America
Canals
Used to irrigate desert fields
El Nino
Unexpected rain/flooding in desert caused by increased coastal water temp
Claypan
Compacted oxisols
Sustainable agriculture practices
Rice paddies and raised fields
Reasons from migration
Underemployment, political, religious, environmental