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Volcano created lake

Gilbert White

Engineering solution alone tend to make hazards worse


Flash flood from volcano melting ice caps

Nuee Ardente

High velocity ash and hot gases


Rock rich in calcium


Dust from the Andes

Karst Topography

Limestone rocks dissolved by acid rain to create caves, sinkholes, and springs


Red soil resulting from rusted iron or aluminum

Parana Lava Flow

Triggered by asteroid impact


Old rock resistant to erosion


Isolated ridges/mesa in highlands


Step farming used to reduce erosion and water runoff


All continents joined to form super continent

Terror Birds

Top predator after dinosaurs died

Intertropical Convergence Zone

North and south winds converge and condense into clouds producing rain


Cold from form North America


Highest layer of forest that has most wildlife

Compaction risk of Oxisols

Creation of claypan

Dark Earth

Improved oxisols by incorporating organic matter into it


Allowing farmed area to go back into forest


Hard brick substance formed from exposed oxisols


Tall plant, harvested for roots


Layer of iron oxide


Traditional slash and burn farming

Beringia land bridge

land bridge from Siberia to Alaska

Carl Ortwin Sauer

Founder of Berkeley School of Geography,. Focused on cultural landscape

Ice-free Corridor

Ice sheets oped up east of Rocky mountain in Canada


Religious experts have personal vision quest involving dream/drugs

Factors best define Latin America

Culture, Language, Environment, Religion

Steps to lessen hazards of Volcanoes

Monitoring, public education, hazard mapping

Volcano resources

Good soil, scenic, building materials

Volcano hazards

Gases, Bombs, Ashe, lahars, nuee ardente

Mountain resources

Moderate temperatures, water, fresh soil

Mountain hazards

frost, low air pressure, steep slopes, earthquakes

Highland resources

Water, minerals, hydroelectric potential

Highland problems

Soil compaction, lack of nutrients, and ironstone, droughts

Steps to lessen problems of Highlands

No heavy machinery, test for philphite, paddy fields and swidden farming, fertilizer

.Lowland resources

Rich fertile soils

Impacts of Parana Lava Flow

Fertile soil in highland, create similar species in Africa/south America

Geography is the study of

Earth's surface and its inhabitants

Methods Geographers use

Maps, methods, and field work

Alexander von Humboldt

German naturalist who, founder of climatology and ecology of Latin America


Seabird excrement used as fertilizer

Coffee grows best in

Tierra Templada

Sertao (Drought Polygon)

Drought every few years in Brazil


Cold front in Brazil

Tierra Caliente

Lowlands, 80 @ day, 70 @ night ex) Rio de Janerio

Tierra Fria

Mountains, 50/60 @ day, 40/30 @ night, possible frost ex) Mexico City, La Paz

Tierra Helada

Frozen lands, no agriculture, few settlements

Tierra Templada

Highlands, 70@ day, 60@ night, ex) San Jose, Guatemala City

Trade Winds



Between 30 degrees north and south, between tropics of Cancer and Capricorn


Migrated from South America


Giant rodent of South America


Used to irrigate desert fields

El Nino

Unexpected rain/flooding in desert caused by increased coastal water temp


Compacted oxisols

Sustainable agriculture practices

Rice paddies and raised fields

Reasons from migration

Underemployment, political, religious, environmental

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