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What is "Incentive Theory" about?

Emphasizes the motivational value of the "Counter-Attitudinal" message content.

What are the primary reasons for "Self-Persuasion"?

The development and learning of "New Reasons" or "Argument".

The individual holds onto ____ arguments and suppresses ___ arguments.


What do rewards stimulate?

Acceptance of "Counter-Attitudinal Arguments"

What are some criticisms about "Incentive Theory"?

1 Theory is too mechanic
2 It follows too strict of a "stimulus > response" approach
3 Doesn't determine the specific goals the person perceives as rewarding

What is "Self-Perception" Theory?

Assumes the basis for attitude change and then follows "Counter-Attitudinal Advocacy".

What are some criticisms about "Self-Perception Theory"?

1 Ignores process of attitude change
2 Too simplistic

Who wrote about the "Theory of Influenceability"?


What is the "Theory of Influenceability" about?

It makes important distinctions between "Persuasion" and "Influenceability". It also hypothesizes individual differences exist in terms of influence across situations.

What is "Persuasibility"?

It's part of a larger condition called "Influenceability".

How many principles does the "Theory of Influenceability" have?


What are the principles does the "Theory of Influenceability" have?

1 Mediational Principle
2 Compensation Principle
3 Situational-Weighing Principle
4 Confounding Principle
5 Interaction Principle

What is "Mediational" principle?

States that persuasibility is mediated by
- IQ
- Age
- Self-esteem

What is "Compensation" principle?

States that mediating factors can have opposing effects. Thus, cancelling each other out.

What is "Situational-Weighting" principle?

States that type of influence affects how much difference is found.

What is "Confounding" principle?

States that mediating variables will cluster in different ways.

What is "Interaction" principle?

States that mediating variables interact with "Source" and "Message".

How many broad types of influences are there in "Situational-Weighting" principle?


What are the broad types of influences in "Situational-Weighting" principle?

1 Suggestion
2 Conformity
3 Persuasion

What is "Suggestion"?

Simple messages

What is "Conformity"?

Group Pressure

What is "Persuasion"?

complex argument

What are some criticisms of the "Theory of Influenceability"?

1 Overly linear and ignores process
2 Interaction and feedback leaves little to human action

What is praised about the "Theory of Influenceability"?

Its heuristic value has generated decades of research

What is "Impression Management Theory"?

Examines relationship in "Attitude Change".

What is "Attitude Change"?

A reflection of the advocate's desire to maintain a public image of consistency for the benefit of others.

What is the "Information Processing Theories of Persuasion" about?

Centers on the ways people accumulate and organize information about some person, object, situation or idea. This is all done in order to form attitudes about a concept.

An individual's attitude system can be affected by information that is received and integrated into?

The "Attitude Information System"

The degree to which information has affects depends on?

Valence and Weight

What is "Valence"?

The degree to which the information is good or bad news.
It is good is it supports beliefs and bad if it doesn't

What does "Valence" affect?


What is "Weight"?

A function of reliability. It gets higher as there is more reliability.

Attitudes are an accumulation of what?


Change occurs when there is new ___________ or change of _____.


Who wrote the "Yale Theories of Persuasion"?

Janis and Hovland

What was the goal of the Yale program?

To discover ways that communication variables operate within the "Attitude Change System".

What did Yale researchers believe?

They believed that some people are easier to persuade than others.

What did Yale researchers develop?

A detailed model of
1 Antecedent
2 Intermediate
3 Outcome Variables
in the communication process

The focus of Yale researchers was ________ and ______________.


Yale research focused on how people were affected by?


People were hypothesized by Yale researchers to vary in terms of what?

"General Persuasubility" apart from any other communication-related factor.

The Yale research determined that persuasibility is more of a matter of what?

Internal processes than Individual traits.

How many areas does "Varying Ability" have?


What are the areas of "Varying Ability"?

1 Attention
2 Comprehenshion
3 Anticipation
4 Evaluation

Attention + Comprehenshion =

Learning Factors

Anticipation + Evaluation =

Acceptance Factors

Attention + Comprehension + Anticipation =

Facilitating Factors

Evaultion =

Inhibiting Factor

Learning + Lack of Criticism =

Facilitate Persuasion

HIGH abilities to Attend, Comprehend and Anticipate =

Promotion in Persuasibility

HIGH ability to evaluate =

Reduction in Persuasibility

A deficiency in three facilitating abilities will do what?

Decrease Persuasibility

A deficiency in Evaluation Ability will do what?

Increase Persuasibility

Low motivation to use facilitative abilities will result in?

Lower Persuasibility

High motivation to use facilitative abilities will result in?

Higher Persuasibility

High motivation to evaluate leads to what?

Lower Persuasibility

When all four abilities are adequate and the level of motivation is moderate, the individual will be?

1 Selective
2 Discriminating
3 Flexible

in responding to persuasive messages

The "Yale Theories of Persuasion" does not view persuasibility as a condition but a _____.


Who wrote "Social Judgement Theory"?

C. Sherif, M. Sherif & R. Nebergall

What is "Social Judgement Theory"?

Where persons are tested in their ability to judge physical stimuli. It finds it roots in early psychophysical research.

What was used as an analogy to judge physical stimuli?


In social perception, what are internal reference points that are always present?


What do "Anchors" influence?

The way in which a person responds.

What is "Latitude in Attitude"?

What individuals have. There are three types:
1 Acceptance
2 Rejection
3 Non-Commitment

What is "Ego-Involvement"?

"Ego-Involvement" is the degree to which one's attitude affects self-concept.It contains:
1 Salience
2 Intensity

What is "Contrast Assimilation Factor"?

A person judges a message in order to be closer or farther from his own point of view than it actually is.

Messages that fall in the "Latitude of Acceptance" will facilitate?


Messages that fall in the "Latitude of Rejection" will facilitate?

No change

The greater the ___________, the greater the degree of change, unless the message falls into the rejection zone.


The greater the ______________, the greater the degree of ___________and the smaller the latitude of ______________.


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