31 terms

English - Short Stories

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Exposition
Background information, introduction of setting and character(s), foreshadowing
Inciting Force
Event or situation that initiates or causes the conflict. As a result of inciting force, protagonist is aware of conflict.
Rising Action
Events that develop or complicate the conflict and heighten the suspense
Climax
Decisive event or action that determines the outcome of the conflict
turning point
point in story when reader understands how conflict will be resolved
Resolution
(Falling Action) protagonist resolves conflict with antagonist/events that develop from the climax and lead to the conclusion
Denouement
Events that conclude the plot and "un-knot" the conflict
Plot
The sequence of related events which make up a story. In a good plot, each incident has a purpose, grows out of the incidents that precede it, leads into those that follow, and is related to the main idea of the story. Plot may be diagrammed in a story mountain.
Conflict
Struggle between the protagonist and the antagonist; clash of actions, ideas, desires, or values; Protagonist vs. Antagonist.
Three Types of Conflict
Character vs. Character, Character vs. Nature or Society, Character vs. Self
Setting
Time and place in which a piece of literature occurs; may be stated or implied; contributes to mood and atmosphere and has an influence on characters.
Theme
An idea about life expressed in a literary work. A theme may be stated directly, but, more often, it is implied. Theme (a comment on life) should not be confused with moral (rule to live by).
Mood
Certain feeling or tone created in a piece of literature
Character
A person (or animal, etc.) who acts in a story, play, book, etc. The way an author develops a character and has that character interact with other characters or forces is critical to the development of the piece of literature.
Characterization
The techniques an author uses to reveal the personal traits of characters in the story. Characters' personalities and traits can be revealed by describing their: (1) physical appearance; (2) speech; (3) actions; (4) inner thoughts and feelings; and (5) effect on other characters. These methods can be used in any combination.
Protagonist
Central character in a story who faces a problem; the one upon whom the action centers. Protagonist must undergo some conflict to solve the problem. A protagonist with good qualities is often called a hero.
Antagonist
Character or force against whom the protagonist is struggling in the conflict
Primary Character
(Developing) characters around whom the conflict is developed, who change in some significant way as the story progresses.
Secondary Characters
(Static) characters who do not change throughout the story or who play a minor role in the conflict.
Voice
Who is chosen by the author to tell the story
First Person
Story is revealed through the eyes of a character within the story who relates the story (referring to him or herself as "I"). This form of narration allows the author to tell the reader only what the character telling the story can see, hear, or know. It also tends to be more "believable," and might allow the reader to become more emotionally involved with this character.
Third Person
Story is revealed through the author (narrator) who can be in several places at the same time and can tell the reader what is in the hearts and minds of the characters. (Characters are referred to as "he," "she," "they," "it.")
Omniscient
As a point of view in literature, one in which the narrator (and therefore the reader) sees and knows everything about the character's thoughts and feelings
Figurative Language
Words or phrase used to mean something different from their literal meaning, so as to provide new effect or fresh insights into the subject being discussed (The author expects the reader to "figure it out!")
Metaphor
A name, action, or description of one object is applied to another to suggest a likeness between the two. She skated across the frozen glass.
Simile
A comparison of two things, using the words "as" or "like." The ice was as smooth as glass.
Personification
A non-human object is spoken of as if it had qualities of a person (i.e. The wind howled)
Flashback
Interruption of the chronological sequence of a narrative to relate an episode that occurred earlier
Foreshadow
A suggestion or a hint given by the author about something that will take place later in the story; designed to arouse interest and curiosity.
Irony
Use of words to say the opposite of what is really meant. The author's tone is ironic when a real attitude is hidden behind a "mask" of innocence or admiration. Irony is a frequent device in satire.
Symbolism
Using a thing which stands for or means something else. A particular symbol may mean different things to different people.
Suspense
The element of plot that keeps the reader wanting to know what happens next. We usually experience suspense when we are worried about whether or not a character will succumb or succeed in overcoming the obstacles and win in the conflict.