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History Test-America on the Homefront
What did FDR say needed to happen for American to win the war?
Everybody needed to contribute
What was the U.S. army ranked before WWII?
"If you were brave" what branch of the army did you join?
How many soldiers joined the war effort?
How did FDR reassure Americans?
He gave speeches through the radio; He was a confident, inspiring speaker
Why did some people believe women shouldn't work for the war effort?
They can't learn to work machines and were a distraction to the men at work
Why did so many women begin to work for the war? How many women worked?
Men were off at war; 19 million
How did women contribute to the war?
By building airplanes and ships
How did WWII restructure families?
Mothers left homes to help the war effort
What was the "war effort"?
Civilians helped out
What are some ways all Americans (not just soldiers) contributed to the war effort?
Donating material and rationing; buying war bonds
How did the government use propaganda to their benefit? What did they make everyone believe?
They used posters, radios, and war movies; they made everyone believe the Japanese were evil spies
What happened to Japanese-Americans after Pearl Harbor? Why?
They were removed and relocated; they were thought to be spies
Where were Japanese-Americans taken?
Who became a cultural sensation during WWII?
What were soldiers of WWII called?
How did families/citizens first view the war?
They thought it was going great; they didn't take it seriously
When was the invasion of Normandy?
June 6, 1944
Where is Normandy?
What was the invasion of Normandy also known as?
D-Day, Operation Overlord
Why was the invasion of Normandy so critical to the war?
It was the beginning of the end of the war with Germany
When and where did FDR die?
April 12, 1945; posing for a photo at his resort
Why was his death so devastating to the American people?
He helped rebuild America; he led us through the 2 greatest crises in American history
Who took FDR's place as President?
What was Japan's viewpoint on war?
They would fight until the bitter end
Why did America have to take such drastic measures?
The Japanese refused to give up
What reason did Truman give for dropping the atomic bomb?
He wanted the killing to stop
What city did America bomb first?
What city was the first atomic bomb dropped on?
What city was the second atomic bomb dropped on?
What date did Japan surrender?
August 15, 1945
How would you describe America before our entrance into WWII and once it was over?
We were excited about the war at first, but then we realized how bad it really was; We lost our pre-war naivete
How long were volunteers and draftees trained for war?
8 weeks in basic training
What does WAAC stand for?
Women's Auxiliary Army Corps
What did the minorities in America have to say about fighting in the war?
"Why fight for a foreign country to have democracy when we don't even have it here?"
What was the WPA and what did it do?
War Protection Board; shut down all industry to produce tanks, planes, boats, and command cars
What happened in the work force when WWII started?
Women and minorities were hired for the work force
FDR created the _________ ___ _______ ______________.
Office of Price Administration (OPA)
How did the government control the economy?
By stopping inflation and rationing food
What were some of the economic gains during WWII?
The war effort allowed workers to save money and invest in war bonds, and crop production increased by 50%
Name some social adjustments caused by WWII?
Families were restructured, marriage licenses went up 300%, and the "Baby Boomers" generation was born
What 3 minorities were mainly discriminated against?
African and Mexican Americans, and the Japanese
How did FDR justify the sending of Japanese to internment camps?
He said it was "necessary for national security"
How many Japanese Americans were sent to internment camps?
How did Roosevelt and Churchill decide they would win the war?
By gaining the upper hand in Europe
What did Roosevelt say about Churchill?
"It is fun to be in the same decade as you"
Which war was the turning point for the Allies? Why?
Battle of Stalingrad; Soviets defeat the Germans and move Westward
How was Dwight D. Eisenhower involved the the war in Europe?
He was the general of the United States Army
Who were the Tuskegee Airmen?
An all-black squadron that won 2 Distinguished Unit Citations
What was the Battle of the Bulge?
Americans captured the first German town, Aachen
Why was it called the Battle of the Bulge?
Hitler attempted to break through American defenses with tanks, forming a bulge in the lines
What were the German losses in the Battle of the Bulge?
120,000 troops, 600 tanks, and 1,600 planes
Who commanded the Invasion of Normandy?
Dwight D. Eisenhower (Ike)
What did the Germans think would happen during the Invasion of Normandy?
They expected an attack on the port of Calais
What is the Invasion of Normandy known for?
The Largest land/sea/air operation in American army history
How many American troops fought in Normandy?
How long was the Invasion of Normandy fought?
7 days, until the allies pushed inland to France
Paris had been under German occupation for __ _____.
Why did we succeed at the Invasion of Normandy?
Because of the military's ability to deliver so many men to the invasion point at the same time through ships across the English channel
In the Invasion of Normandy, how were parachutes used?
For tactical manner
What did V-E Day stand for?
Victory in Europe Day, when Germany surrendered
Who was Hitler's wife?
When did Hitler marry?
April 29, 1945
What did Hitler say about the war?
He blamed the Jews for starting it and his generals for not winning it
How did Hitler and his wife die?
He shot himself, Eva Braun swallowed poison
In the Pacific War, who was commander of the allied forces?
General Douglas MacArthur
What was the Battle of Coral Sea?
The Japanese drive toward Australia
What was distinctive about the Battle of Coral Sea?
It was the first time since Pearl Harbor that a Japanese invasion had been stopped
What was important about the Battle of Midway?
It was the turning point of the Pacific War
What did the Japanese say about the Battle of Midway?
It was the "avenge of Pearl Harbor" (this was before the atomic bomb)
What was the American tactic in the Pacific War?
Where did America finally go on the offense?
The Solomon Islands
What kind of defense did the Japanese use?
What was Iwo Jima?
The first attack on Japanese land
Iwo Jima was the most ________ ___________ spot.
What were the American losses in Iwo Jima?
Greatest number of losses in the Pacific until Okinawa (6,000 marines)
What did the battle of Iwo Jima do?
Paved the way for the invasion of Japan
What happened at Iwo Jima?
70,000 marines attacked the Japanese-controlled island of 20,700 troops
What was the Manhattan Project?
Best-kept secret of the war; creation of the atomic bomb
Where was the atomic bomb tested?
New Mexico (you could see the flash from 180 miles away)
What did Truman tell Japan before the atomic bomb was dropped?
They faced "prompt and utter destruction" if they didn't surrender (he didn't actually tell them about the atomic bomb)
August 6: the atomic bomb was dropped on _____________. The bomb was nicknamed what?
Hiroshima; "Little Boy"
August 9: the atomic bomb was dropped on ___________. The bomb was nicknamed what?
Nagasaki; "Fat Man'
What was the Yalta Conference?
Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin (The Big Three) met in the Soviet Union for 8 days
What was agreed upon at the Yalta Conference?
Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin would temporarily divide Germany into 4 parts
What did Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin agreed to create and participate in?
The United Nations (UN)