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characteristics of a person that account for consistent patterns of behavior over time


an integrated set of principals that attempt to explain and predict observed events


concept that refers to more enduring and stable aspect of personality


what motivates us

growth and development

nature vs. nurture


the environment that we grown in


psychological disease

how to acquire pathology?

many ways,
oral stages of development is an example

trait theory

doesnt have a model for change


philosophical view, role of the unconscious, and psyco-analytic theory


the person


the situation

what makes a good theory?

a good theory is comprehensiveness in that it encompasses and accounts for a variety of data.

A good theory is 3 things

parsimonious, comprehensiveness, relevance


band wide phenomenon


succinct, which means simple


life records data, observed data, test data, and self-report

if research is reliable

the results can be replicated over time.

3 approaches to case study or research

clinical, experimental, correlational

correlational study

relationships between variables and associations


emphasized the unconscious, conflict between the id and the super ego


pleasure seeker



super ego

moral conscious

goal of pyschoanalysis

to enhance the ego and relief of anxiety

motivation by freud

we are motivated by sexual drives and aggressions according to Freud

defense mechanism

represents waves of distorting reality, and excluding feeling from awareness, so that one doesnt feel anxious

types of defense mechanisms

repression, denial, and rationalization


thoughts, ideas, or wishes dismissed from consciousness


painful internal or external reality is denied


acceptable reason is given for unacceptable action or motive

psychosexual stages

Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital

little hans

worked with freud, had castration anxiety due to oedipus complex in phallic stage of development

erickson's psycho social stages

basic trust vs. mistrust
autonomy vs shame and doubt
guilt vs. initiative

basic trust vs. mistrust

child gains trust and mistrust issues at this stage

autonomy vs shame

autonomy gives child snese of choice, feels important

initiative vs guilt

know they can achieve something feels guilt if labeled negatively

projective test

ink blot
thematic aptitude test

projective tests can be graded 2 different ways

subjectively and objectively

definition of projective tests

test that generally involve vague ambiguous stimuli that allow subject to reveal personality in terms of their distinctive responses


important part of the healing process because you transfer emotion to the psycho-analyst

carl roger

client center therapy
felt that people should be free to make their own decision and choices

carl roger's theory

we come into the world good, striving to find our potentional
studied healthy people
believed we are all unique

theory of change

everyone is capable of changing. our personalities are dynamic


the closer our ideal self and our actual self are aligned (being true to yourself)


roger's concept of the existence of a discrepancy between the ideal and actual self.


the perceptions and meanings associated with the self

ideal self

self concept that individuals would most like to possess

self esteem

the person's evaluative regard for self or personal judgement (how we evaluate our self-worth)

measures of self concept

q-sort technique, adjective check list, semantic differential

self actualization

the fundamental tendency of an individual to actualize, maintain, and enhance one's self to fulfill one's potential

synonym for congruence



an approach to understanding people. and conducting therapy associated with human potential movement. emphasizes concerns inherent in existing as a person.

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