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is a political philosophy that favors traditional values.

Karl Sand

He was a Burschenschaften member who assassinated the conservative dramatist August von Kotzebue. Sand was later tried and publicly executed, and became a martyr in the eyes of some nationalists.


An ideology that holds that a nation is the fundamental unit for human social life, and takes precedence over any other social and political principles.

Vienna Settlement

Treaty made after defeat of napolean that redrew national boundaries, reinstalled kinds, and created 100 years of peace in Europe


status belonging to states strong enough to protect their borders and achieve citizen loyalty

Characteristics of Early 19th Century Liberalism

A political ideology that emphasizes the civil rights of citizens, representative government, and the protection of private property. This ideology, derived from the Enlightenment, was especially popular among the property-owning middle classes. , Liberals in the 19th century wanted to develop a world free from government intervention, or at least free from too much government intervention. They championed the ideal of negative liberty, which constitutes the absence of coercion and the absence of external constraints. They believed governments were cumbersome burdens and they wanted governments to stay out of the lives of individuals


basic principle that government and those who govern must obey the law; the rule of law


is a political philosophy that favors traditional values.


Politically active students around 1815 in the German states proposing unification and democratic principles.

Carlsbad Decrees

Issued by Metternich, required 39 independent German states, including Prussia and Austria, to root out subversive ideas. (censorship) Also established permanent comittee with spies to punish any liberal or radical organization.

Peterloo Massacre

Was the result of a cavalry charge into the crowd at a public meeting at St Peter's Fields, Manchester, England

White Terror

royalist rebellion in Paris, trying to kill all revolutionaries, Napoleon first appears and says "width of a grape shot" and ends rebellion

Greek Revolution of 1821

Revolts broke out in Greece in 1821 and this revolt it known for its involvement of many liberal writers. The Ottoman Empire was not stable, and the rest of Europe was asking how they could ensure the stability of it, and ensure that it would not take land and states that the powers wanted. They finally reached to the conclusion that if Greece were independent, it would secure the states. The powers aided the Greece revolt with the Treaty of London, and sent troops to Greece. The Russians gained control over what is now Romania, and the revolt ended with the Treaty of Adrianople. This treaty made it so the powers would have control over Greece's future, and Greece was made independent by a second treaty of London in 1830.

Milos Obrenovitch

New Serbian leader in 1815 who succeeded in negotiating greater administrative autonomy for some Serbian territory

San Martin

revolutionary that freed Chile, Argentina and Peru

Simon Bolivar

Venezuelan statesman who led the revolt of South American colonies against Spanish rule

Prince Regent Joao

He was a Portuguese prince who visited Brazil. He addressed their concerns, and made Brazil a kingdom. He was called back to Portugal during a revolution there.

Tsar Alexander I

Russian ruler whose mediation proposal led to negotiations ending the War of 1812

Decembrist Revolt of 1825

Russian army officers led about 3,000 soldiers in a protest against Nicholas I's assumption of the throne after his elder brother Constantine removed himself from the line of succession.

polish diet

The legislative body, or parliament, of Poland.


a political theory favoring unlimited authority by a single individual

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