Ocean Midterm 2
Terms in this set (76)
The water molecule and basic atomic structure...
It is made of two hydrogen and one oxygen.
water molecule charges
The hydrogen is positive and the oxygen is negative
H2O molecule bond angle
What's so peculiar about this molecule?...
high heat capacity (4.19) joules
The kinds of bonds in the water molecule
The kinds of bonds connecting all the water molecules together to form liquid?
What do these bonds lead to?
These bonds lead to cohesion, and then surface tension (water exerting a force).
Polarity - why is water a polar molecule?
Water is a polar molecule (electromagnetic) because hydrogen is positive (attracts negative) and oxygen is negative (attracts positive).
What do we call water as a result and why?
What happens to salt (NaCl) in water?
NaCl dissolve in water because Na is attracted to oxygen and hydrogen is attracted to to chloride
What are the 3 phases of water and how does one get changed to another?
The three phases of water include solid (molecules locked in place/bonded), liquid (most molecules connected/most bonded), and gas (independent molecules/not bonded at all).
Heat is both added and removed to make water change phases.
Thermal properties of water - what is the heat capacity of water? Why?
The heat capacity of water is the amount of heat required to raise temp of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree celsius. (4.19 Joules) high heat capacity b/c it needs to absorb a lot of energy before temp. changes
thermal inertia- water (h bonds) resisiting change
It has a high heat capacity (between 32 degrees C and -2 degrees C) because water does not like to change phase.
What is heat capacity of sand and why?
Sand has a low heat capacity between 57 degrees C and 88 degrees C.
What is the ocean's influence on coastal climates?
The influence on the ocean is moderate coastal climates. Towards the end of the summer/fall, we see stronger storms and hurricanes.
How does Salinity and Temp affect Density?
More salinity and lower(decrease in temp) temp = more dense.
Less salinity and higher(increase in temp) temp = less dense.
What is density?
What happens to cold, salty water - thermal contraction?
In thermal contraction, molecules lose energy and slow down so the same number of molecules occupy less space
In thermal expansion, molecules gain energy and speed up moving occupying more space
what does water do at the poles and why?
At the poles, water sinks because it is cold and salty, therefore, denser.
What happens to water at the equator?
At the equator, water rises because it warm and less salty, therefore, less dense
What's the temp of the max density of water?
4 degrees C
How does the density of water change with freezing?
density of liquid water is 1g/cm^3
When water cools, it becomes more dense, when it reaches a max of 4 degrees celsius and it freezes then it becomes less dense
Why does ice float on water?
Ice floats above the liquid form of water because it is less dense than water (more space btwn water molecules).
Salinity - what is it, and what is average salinity in the world's oceans?
Salinity is the total amount of dissolved solids (ions) in water.
The average salinity of the world's oceans is 35% per million. (35ppt)
How does surface salinity change (from equator to subtropical latitudes to polar latitudes?...);
At the equator, surface salinity is in the middle. There is high evaporation and high precipitation.
At the subtropical latitudes, surface salinity is high. There is high evaporation, Low precipitation and low runoff.
what are the evaporation latitudes and the precipitation latitudes?
At the polar latitudes, surface salinity is low. There is high precipitation, low evaporation, river runoff, and melting icebergs.
Application: the salinity of the Mediterranean, the history of the Mediterranean basin
The salinity of the Mediterranean sea is high. The sea dried up 6 million years ago. We know because layers of solid rock salt are found underneath.
salinity of the Baltic Sea
The Baltic sea has a low salinity so you would sink.
salinity dead sea
The Dead Sea has a high salinity so you would float.
What are the most abundant sources of salts? - continental erosion, volcanoes, etc...
The most abundant sources of salts include continental rocks (rocks fall into rivers-sodium) (ex. Kenai River Delta and Mississippi River), volcanic activity (sulfate and chlorine combine with sodium to form Salt), and hydrothermal vents.
Density structure of a column of water: the surface layer, the pycnocline, and the deep zone: what are the salient characteristics of each?
The surface layer is from 0 m - 200 m (least dense, lowest salinity), the pycnocline is from 200 m - 1000 m (middle density, middle salinity), and deep zone 1000 m - 4000 m (highest density, highest salinity).
A change of temperature with depth
change in salinity with depth
Thermocline + Halocline
where is the thermocline found more prominently and where is it not found?
The thermocline is found in tropical/subtropical regions with temperate waters. It is absent at the poles.
The things that drive the weather
The sun, oceans, atmosphere, rotation of the Earth, and uneven solar absorption drive the weather.
Solar radiation; where is it more absorbed and least absorbed and why?; what distributes heat around on Earth?
Solar radiation is more absorbed at the equatorial regions because it comes in at a straight 90 degree angle over a small area. Energy absorbed
Solar radiation is least absorbed at polar regions because it comes in at a tilted 30 degree angle over a large area. Energy reflected
Troposphere pressure of a parcel of air
What are winds - air moving form H to L pressure; what does it mean?...
High Pressure = A column of cool, dense air causes high pressure at the surface, which will lead to sinking air. (heavy column of air).
Low Pressure = A column of warm, less dense air causes low pressure at the surface, which will lead to rising air. (light column of air)-moving away from you
The Hadley cell - describe this convection cell from Equator to 30deg N/S; How are the major wind belts formed -
Warm air rises at the equator and travels to the poles> en route it cool and falls to the Earth's surface where it is then pushed back towards the equator warming along the way to rise again at the equator
the trades and westerlies for hadley cell
The trades and westerlies are the masses of air that move across the surface of the earth from the subtropical high pressure to the equatorial. In the northern hemisphere, trade winds rotate clockwise and in the southern hemisphere, trade winds rotate counter clockwise.
Where do we have high pressures and low pressures? Why?...
We have high pressures in San Diego (hence it's sunny all the time)
We have low pressures in the Pacific NorthWest (Rainy)
The Coriolis effect - what does it do in the N and in the S hemispheres
The Earth's rotation moves objects.
In the northern hemisphere, it moves to the right and in the southern hemisphere, it moves to the left.
how does coriolis affect the prevailing winds?
Coriolis doesn't exist at the equator.Trade Easterlies flow west towards the equator and trade westerlies flow north towards the poles.
In the northern hemisphere, cyclones rotate counterclockwise and anti-cyclones rotate clockwise. In the southern hemisphere, cyclones rotate clockwise and anti-cyclones rotate counter-clockwise.
Hurricanes- what are they exactly and where do they form? What seasons and why?
Hurricanes are low pressure systems.(warm waters)
They happen in the late summer and fall season because water takes a long time to heat up due to high heat capacity
hurricanes What are the conditions that form them and what kind of damage at coastlines?
Conditions include winds around 120 km/hr, seawater 26 degrees C, warm moist air, and weak upper winds.
Storm surges - what is this, why deadly?
Storm Surges are water coming to the land when a storm forms in the tropical regions and spins very fast. It is deadly because flooding.
Hurricane Katrina - why was it so deadly (over 1,800 people), major city affected and why?...
It was deadly because the severe flooding and Louisiana, New Orleans was below sea level.
Climate change and global warming - what is the Greenhouse effect?and what are the greenhouse gases?... what do the Temp and CO2 records indicate?
The greenhouse gases are H2O (water vapour), CO2 (Carbon Dioxide), CH4 (Methane), N2O (Nitrogen Oxide), and O3 (Oxygen).
The temp and CO2 record indicate that we are causing global warming.
What is going on with polar ice, especially in the Arctic?... what do we know about the climate of the last 2 million years?... the last 65 million years?... the last 500 million years?...
The polar ice is melting faster than they are freezing, so the oceans are warming up.
In the last 2 million years, ups and downs through glaciations and interglaciations.
In the last 65 million years,??
In the last 200 years, rapid warming anthropogenic (due to humans), and fossil fuels emission increasing.
What's ocean acidification? How is it related to global warming? How are organisms affected? How does it relate to pH?... what are the oceans doing?...
Acidification is when seawater PH decreases with CO2.
It is related to global warming because as PH decreases with CO2, the oceans arm up.
The ecosystem is threatened.
It is related to PH because if PH does not stay the same, it affects the oceans.
In the last 200 years, the oceans have changed from a ratio of 8:25 to 8:14.
Surface currents and deep currents - what are the differences?
Surface currents are wind - driven.
Deep currents are density driven.
2 types of surface currents(water masses moving horizontally): the western boundary (WBC) and eastern boundary(EBC) - what are their characteristics, differences and specific examples?
Western boundary currents are warm and flow west of the ocean basin. Originate at the equatorial regions and are deflected by the continents. (Gulf Stream)
Eastern boundary currents are cold and flow to the east of the ocean basin. Originate at the polar regions and are deflected by the continents. (California)
Ekman transport - what is it? Examples on the western margins of continents; leads to upwelling -What is coastal upwelling? How does it relate to life in the oceans...
Ekman transport is when objects in the ocean move to the right of the wind due to the coriolis effect.
Upwelling is when cold, deep, nutrient-rich, waters rise to the surface.
In the Pacific what are the normal conditions and the El Nino conditions?
In the Pacific, the normal conditions are trade winds blow west, warm waters flow to Asia, and there is high pressure with upwelling in the Americas.
What do El Niño conditions mean to the Americas and CA (in terms of general winter weather and ocean conditions)?...
In the Pacific, the El Nino conditions are trade winds weaken/reverse, warm waters flow to the Americas, and there is a low pressure system with low productivity.
The El Nino makes the Americas and CA cold.
is the horizontal distance between successive crests.
is the vertical distance between crests and troughs.
is the time it takes wavelengths to a pass a point, usually between crests.
the depth at which you feel a wave.
waves have a water depth of < ½ length, they drag on the bottom. Examples include tsuanmi and tides.
waves have a water depth of > ½ length, waves do not touch bottom. Example - wind waves.
The 2 types of breakers and why?
There are spilling breakers with a gentle slope. There are plunging breaks with a steep slope.
- deep water waves
is the distance over which the wind blows.
is the long-crested wave train travels out of the sea.
A wave breaks when
he ocean depth is equal to the wave base and when the circular orbital motion is disrupted against the seafloor.
The breakers are at
Application: Surfing - why better in the west coast of the US, not the east?...
Surfing is better on the west coast because it has a steeper seafloor due to active margins.
shallow water waves.that touch the bottom of the sea. Their salient characteristics include 750 km/hr, vertical changes in the shape of the seafloor, a magnitude of 7 and up, and a flat coast has a high risk for it.
They are caused by earthquakes under the sea. Mostly in the Pacific rim because lots of active margins.
The great tsunami of Sumatra,2004 - cause? What became of some coastlines?... why so many people killed (230,000)?...recall the videos and the force of the waves for both these events...
Produced by matitude 9.2 earthquake
So many people were killed by flooding
The great tsunami of Japan, 2011 - cause, why so many people killed (20,000)?... How is the shape of a coastline a factor in destruction?.
Produced by mantitude 9 earthquake
So many people were killed because flooding
The shape of the coastline was a factor in destruction because
Shallow water waves. Why are they produced?
They are produced by gratification traction of our moon
Gravity between moon, earth, and sun.
What are the types of tides we have on Earth? (diurnal, semi-diurnal, complex)... What type do we have in California?...
Diurnal is 1 high and 1 low tide.
Semidiurnal is 2 high tides and 2 low tides.
Mixed/complex is 2 highs and 2 lows of unequal height (diurnal inequality)
In CA, we have mixed tides
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