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nonverbal behavior cues

eye contact, personal space & touching, body language, emotion

detecting deception

wrong cues = words, face
non-controllable = body, voice

anxiety and dishonesty have similar physical symptoms

primacy effect

the order of words determines opinions

first information colors everything else

belief perseverance

people maintain beliefs even when they are discredited

we like consistency and being right, evidence is ambiguous

people grab onto whatever evidence supports their pre-existing beliefs (hannah)

confirmation bias

tendency to seek (extro/introvert questions), interpret (hannah), and create (late bloomers) info that verifies existing beliefs

self-fulfilling prophecy

1 - expectation, 2 - behave accordingly, 3 - she behaves as expected

snyder et al

dyadic interaction, based on female attractiveness
DVs = how do men/women behave?
IVs = what do men expect about partner?

personal/dispositional attribution

attribution to actor's internal characteristics


effort to figure out the cause of behavior

situational/external attribution

attribution to external factors

correspondent inferences theory

can we make a dispositional attribution?

factor 1: choice = more informative
ex. castro essay
factor 2: expectedness = less informative
ex. i hate your class
factor 3: noncommon effects = informative
ex. donald trump/tom cruise

co-variation theory

consensus, distinctiveness, consistency


do other people behave the same way towards the target stimulus?
high = people behave the same
keep stimulus same, change actors


does target individual behave the same way towards other stimuli?
high = not with other stimulus
keep target, change stimulus


does target individual always behave this way towards target stimulus?
high = yes

fundamental attribution error

tendency to make personal, dispositional attributions when perceiving others
underestimating power of situation

actor-observer effect

quiz show study

FAE in judging others' behaviors, often draw in situation explaining our own acts

thin slice judgments

6 seconds of professor = semester

cognitive heuristics

information-processing rules of thumb that enable us to think in ways that are quick and easy but that frequently lead to error

availability heuristic

a tendency to estimate the odds that an even will occur by how easily instances pop to mind

false-consensus effect

people overestimating the extent to which others share their opinions

base-rate fallacy

people are insensitive to numerical base rates, more influenced by graphic, dramatic events

counterfactual thinking

ex. olympic silver vs. bronze

imagining alternative outcomes that might have occurred but did not


olympic medalists, fish background

bicultural identity = what's brought to mind

belief in a just world

tendency to be critical of victims
everyone gets what they deserve, to believe otherwise is to concede that we are vulnerable to twists of fate

information integration

summation model = more positive traits = better
averaging model = high average value of all traits = better

priming effects

recently used concepts come to mind easily and influence how we interpret information

participants primed with rudeness words are more likely to interrupt experimenter

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