Exam 1: Social Perception

nonverbal behavior cues
eye contact, personal space & touching, body language, emotion
detecting deception
wrong cues = words, face
non-controllable = body, voice

anxiety and dishonesty have similar physical symptoms
primacy effect
the order of words determines opinions

first information colors everything else
belief perseverance
people maintain beliefs even when they are discredited

we like consistency and being right, evidence is ambiguous

people grab onto whatever evidence supports their pre-existing beliefs (hannah)
confirmation bias
tendency to seek (extro/introvert questions), interpret (hannah), and create (late bloomers) info that verifies existing beliefs
self-fulfilling prophecy
1 - expectation, 2 - behave accordingly, 3 - she behaves as expected
snyder et al
dyadic interaction, based on female attractiveness
DVs = how do men/women behave?
IVs = what do men expect about partner?
personal/dispositional attribution
attribution to actor's internal characteristics
effort to figure out the cause of behavior
situational/external attribution
attribution to external factors
correspondent inferences theory
can we make a dispositional attribution?

factor 1: choice = more informative
ex. castro essay
factor 2: expectedness = less informative
ex. i hate your class
factor 3: noncommon effects = informative
ex. donald trump/tom cruise
co-variation theory
consensus, distinctiveness, consistency
do other people behave the same way towards the target stimulus?
high = people behave the same
keep stimulus same, change actors
does target individual behave the same way towards other stimuli?
high = not with other stimulus
keep target, change stimulus
does target individual always behave this way towards target stimulus?
high = yes
fundamental attribution error
tendency to make personal, dispositional attributions when perceiving others
underestimating power of situation
actor-observer effect
quiz show study

FAE in judging others' behaviors, often draw in situation explaining our own acts
thin slice judgments
6 seconds of professor = semester
cognitive heuristics
information-processing rules of thumb that enable us to think in ways that are quick and easy but that frequently lead to error
availability heuristic
a tendency to estimate the odds that an even will occur by how easily instances pop to mind
false-consensus effect
people overestimating the extent to which others share their opinions
base-rate fallacy
people are insensitive to numerical base rates, more influenced by graphic, dramatic events
counterfactual thinking
ex. olympic silver vs. bronze

imagining alternative outcomes that might have occurred but did not
olympic medalists, fish background

bicultural identity = what's brought to mind
belief in a just world
tendency to be critical of victims
everyone gets what they deserve, to believe otherwise is to concede that we are vulnerable to twists of fate
information integration
summation model = more positive traits = better
averaging model = high average value of all traits = better
priming effects
recently used concepts come to mind easily and influence how we interpret information

participants primed with rudeness words are more likely to interrupt experimenter