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APES Chapter 5
Terms in this set (62)
Oxygen makes up ___% of Earth's atmosphere and must stay between ___% and ___% for life to exist.
21; 15 and 25
What is chemical evolution and how long did it last?
Organic molecules, biopolymers, and systems of chemical reactions needed to form the first cell - lasted 1 billion years.
What is biological evolution and how long did it last?
Single-celled prokaryotes to multicellular eukaryotes - 3.7 billion years, ongoing
Where does knowledge of past life come from?
Fossils, ice-core drilling, chemical analysis, DNA analysis
What did Miller's experiment do?
Recreated the conditions of Earth's early atmosphere - methane, CO2, ammonia (oxygen - life)
How long ago did plants begin to move onto land? Animals?
780 million years ago; 370 million years ago
The change in a population's genetic makeup over time.
Theory of evolution
All species descend from earlier, ancestral species.
The small genetic changes that occur in a population over time.
Long-term, large-scale evolutionary changes among groups of species
Different forms of a gene are called __________.
All the genes in a population's offspring
Random changes in the structure or number of DNA molecules in a cell
What two things can cause mutations?
External agents like X rays, chemicals (mutagens), or radioactivity; Random mistakes in coded genetic instructions
Only mutations in ______________ cells are passed on to offspring.
What is natural selection's role in evolution?
When members of a population have genetic traits that improve their ability to survive and produce offspring with those specific traits
For natural selection to evolve in a population, what three things are necessary?
Genetic variability, an inheritable trait, and the ability of the organisms with the trait to produce more offspring
Heritable traits that help organisms survive and reproduce better under prevailing environmental conditions
In the case of environmental changes, organisms must...
Adapt to the new conditions, migrate, or become extinct
What are the three steps of microevolution?
Genes mutate, individuals are selected, populations evolve
Changes in one species bring about changes in another species
Organisms evolve to have similar structures despite lack of a common ancestor
A population diverges into two or more descendant species
A species' way of life in an ecosystem - everything that affects its survival and reproduction (includes adaptions, range of tolerance, interactions with other components of ecosystem, role in energy flow and matter recycling)
The physical location where a species lives
The full potential range of conditions and resources a species could use
The part of the potential niche that allows a species to survive and avoid competition with other species for the same resources
A species with a broad ecological role - living range broad, can eat a variety of foods, tolerate a wide range of environments
A species with a narrow ecological role - specific environments, more prone to extinction
Intense competition can lead to what?
Evolutionary divergence of a single species into a variety of similar species with specialized niches
What two things limit a population's ability to adapt to new conditions?
Gene pool and rate of reproduction (the quicker you reproduce, the quicker you adapt)
Two species arising from one when some members cannot breed with others to produce fertile offspring
Most common method of speciation
What are the two phases of allopatric speciation?
Geographic isolation, reproductive isolation
What is the difference between allopatric speciation and sympatric speciation?
Allopatric involves geographic isolation, sympatric does not.
When two species live close together but can't interbreed because of a mutation or subtle changes in behavior
Species tend to survive for ___ to ___ million years before extinction
1 to 10
What are the two causes of extinction?
Habitat loss, invasive species
Extinction at a low rate due to change in local environmental conditions
What is the rate of extinction without humans present?
1 extinction per 1 million species per year
What is a mass extinction, and how many have there been in Earth's history?
A significant rise in extinction rates above the background extinction level - 25-70% of species are lost. 2 in Earth's history
More than ___% of all species that have ever existed are now extinct.
What are three common misconceptions about evolution?
Fitness is a measure of strength, organisms develop certain traits because they need them, evolutions works according to some grand plan
Adaptive radiations (and how long do they usually last?)
Recovery periods after mass extinctions when new species fill niches in changed environments - last 1-10 million years
Biodiversity = __________ - ___________
Speciation minus extinction
What is the rate of extinction due to humans?
100 to 1,000 species per million species
Genetically engineered animals act as biofactories to produce drugs, vaccines, antibodies, hormones, etc.
Selecting beneficial traits and using selective breeding to produce populations with a higher concentration of the trait
Insertion of an alien gene into an organism to give it a beneficial genetic trait
Competition between members of the same species for resources in the same ecosystem
Competition between members of different species for resources in the same ecosystem
What are the two reasons humans have become such a powerful species?
Complex brain, opposable thumbs
Why are cockroaches the ultimate survivor?
They are the ultimate generalist - they can eat almost anything, can live and been almost anywhere, and can withstand massive radiation
Gradual vs. punctuated divergent evolution
Punctual is much quicker, shaper (know how to draw)
What is the general progression of the development of life?
Anaerobic prokaryotes --> photosynthesizing prokaryotes --> aerobic prokaryotes --> eukaryotes
How is the history of life divided? (from longest to shortest) What epoch are we in now?
Eon - era - period - epoch; Anthropocene
Resource partitioning does what?
Reduces competition and allows sharing of limited resources (specialized feeding niches)
A zone of transition between two well-defined vegetated areas - edge effect (more species in ecotone than each area). A lack of an ecotone can harm ecosystems
Disruptive evolution (visual)
One curve --> two on either side (organisms with less popular/more extreme traits survive)
Directional evolution (visual)
Curve moves left or right (organisms with specific traits survive)
Stabilizing evolution (visual)
Curve gets narrower (organisms with more popular/less extreme traits survive)
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