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ap psych chp. 8

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all are closely related
What type of thinking is closely related to language?
Picture a specific example of that concept
Prototypes make concepts easier to understand by allowing us to
the algorithm
Though not always practical, it is the most reliable approach to solving a problem
Trying an approach successful in the past
A person's mental set tends to make him or her solve problems by
incubation effect
Allows a person to solve a problem without consciously working on it.
Can still never be sure that it is true after all cases
After scientists collect information to support theories, they
Psycholinguistics
Psychology of (process by which humans acquire, use, and understand) language
syntax
The way in which words are arranged to make phrases or sentences
Incorrectly use words they had used correctly before.
Young children who have just learned grammar rules often
thinking
the mental activity involved in understanding, processing, and communicating information
convergent thinking
thinking about only the available facts to solve a problem
heuristic
rule of thumb or shortcut, used to solve a problem
functional fixedness
tendency to think of an object as being used only for its usual purpose
deductive reasoning
reasoning in which the conclusion is true if the premises are true
visualizing the best course of action
a balance sheet may help in solving a problem by
language acquisition device
a person's inborn tendency to acquire a language is known as
semantics
the study of meaning
overregulization
applying regular rules of grammar to all, including words that do not fit the rule
combine symbols in grammatically correct way.
Most psychologist argue that chipanzes cannot truly speak language because they cannot:
into hierarchies
While people learn concepts through experience, organize by
algorithms
Specific procedure needed to solve a problem; guaranteed to work:
analogy
Solving problems by trying same solution that worked for a similar problem:
Recombination
The mental rearrangement of the elements of a problem:
inductive reasoning
Tendency to prove the hypotheses correct (known as confirmation bias) is related to:
anchoring heuristic
People make decisions based on certain ideas or standards they believe in:
all/any of the above
A morpheme generally consist of:
grammar
The word order in a language:
symbol
An object or act that stands for something else (not present)
divergent thinking
Following many lead and using free association to solve a problem
difference reduction
Problem-solving method that identifies goals and steps needed to reach them
an obstacle to solving a problem
Functional fixedness can become
premise
A basic fact, idea or statement that gives information for drawing conclusions
availability heuristic
Helps people decide using basic information available in immediate consciousness
phoneme
Basic unit of sound in a language
learning words
The beginning of the language in babies occurs when they start
during early childhood
Psychologists believe that a second language is most easily learned
concepts
Grouping of objects, events or ideas that have similar characteristics
difference reduction
Problem solving method that identifies goals and steps needed to reach them:
means-end analysis
Problem solving in which a problem is broken into parts and individually solved:
divergent thinking
Creative problem solving involves:
inductive
Reasoning that starts from particular facts to reach a general conclusion:
population that seems to apply to the problem
The representativeness heuristic helps people make decisions based on:
morpheme
Unit of meaning in a language:
try to talk about more things than they have words for
Young children often exhibit behavior of overextension in which they:
increases expertise in native language
Studies suggest bilingualism: