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149 terms

Ch 20 & 21

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Peyer's patches are clusters of lymphoid tissue found primarily in the large intestine.
F
The lymphatic capillaries function to absorb the excess protein-containing interstitial fluid and return it to the bloodstream.
T
Lymph always flows away from the heart.
F
Lymphatic capillaries are permeable to proteins.
T
Digested fats are absorbed from the intestine by the lymph capillaries.
T
Chyle is delivered to the blood via the lymphatic system.
T
Lymphoid tissue is mainly reticular connective tissue.
T
Lymphocytes reside temporarily in lymphoid tissue, then move to other parts of the body.
T
When tissues are inflamed, lymphatic capillaries develop openings that permit uptake of large particles such as cell debris, pathogens, and cancer cells.
T
An infected lymph gland is called a bubo.
T
If even a small part of the spleen is left in a ten-year-old child, it will most likely regenerate itself.
T
The cisterna chyli collects lymph from the lumbar trunks draining the upper limbs and from the intestinal trunk draining the digestive organs.
F
The most important role of the spleen is to provide a site for lymphocyte proliferation and immune surveillance and response.
F
All the lymphoid organs are well developed before birth.
F
Small organs associated with lymphatic vessels are termed ________.
lymph nodes
The distal portion of the small intestine contains clumps of lymph follicles called ________.
Peyer's patches
Both lymph and venous blood flow are heavily dependent on ________.
skeletal muscle contractions and differences in thoracic pressures due to respiratory movement
The thymus is most active during ________.
CHILDHOOD
Which lymphatic structure drains lymph from the right upper limb and the right side of the head and thorax?
right lymphatic duct
What effect does age have on the size of the thymus?
The thymus initially increases in size and then decreases in size from adolescence through old age.
The lymphatic capillaries are ________.
more permeable than blood capillaries
Which of the following would not be classified as a lymphatic structure?
pancreas
Lymph leaves a lymph node via ________.
efferent lymphatic vessels
Which cells become immunocompetent due to thymic hormones?
lymphocytes
Functions of the spleen include all of those below except ________.
forming crypts that trap bacteria
Antibodies that act against a particular foreign substance are released by ________.
plasma cells
Select the correct statement about lymphocytes.
B cells produce plasma cells, which secrete antibodies into the blood.
Select the correct statement about lymphoid tissue.
Lymphoid tissue is predominantly reticular connective tissue.
Lymphoid tissue that appears as a swelling of the mucosa in the oral cavity is called a(n) ________.
tonsil
Select the correct statement about lymph transport.
Lymph transport depends on the movement of adjacent tissues, such as skeletal muscles.
Which of the following is not a mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue?
THYMUS
Peyer's patches are found in the ________.
ileum of the small intestine
Large clusters of lymph nodes occur in all of the following locations except the ________.
lower extremities
The tonsils located at the base of the tongue are the ________.
lingual tonsils
Which of the following is not a normal component of lymph?
rbc
Which of the following is not a function of the lymphatic system?
transporting respiratory gases
Which of the following is not a function of lymph nodes?
produce lymph fluid and cerebro-spinal fluid
Digestive tract-associated lymphatic tissue includes all of the following except ________.
islets of Langerhans
The lymphatic system is composed of all of the following, except
the venae cavae.
________ are large lymphatic nodules that are located in the walls of the pharynx.
Tonsils
________ are clusters of lymphatic nodules deep to the epithelial lining of the small intestine.
Peyer patches
The term lymphadenopathy refers to
a chronic or excessive enlargement of lymph nodes.
Leslie has a bad sore throat and the lymph nodes in her neck are swollen. This would indicate that
the affected lymph nodes contain an increased number of lymphocytes.
The thoracic duct drains lymph from all of the following regions, except the C
right breast.
A graft from a monkey to a human is an example of an allograft.
F
Cellular ingestion and destruction of particulate matter is called phagocytosis.
T
The directional movement of cells in response to chemicals is called chemotaxis.
T
Substances capable of triggering the adaptive immune system and provoking an immune response are called antigens.
T
Soluble proteins secreted by plasma cells are called antibodies.
T
A given pathogen will provoke either a cell-mediated response or an antibody-mediated response but not both.
F
Fever is seldom beneficial because it speeds up the cellular metabolic rate and will not allow antigen-antibody reactions to occur.
F
It is our genes, not antigens, that determine what specific foreign substances our immune system will be able to recognize and resist.
T
Monoclonal antibodies can be specific for several antigenic determinants.
F
Antigens can be complete or incomplete.
T
Anaphylactic shock can result from an immediate hypersensitivity where the allergen enters the blood.
T
A transfusion reaction is a subacute hypersensitivity to foreign red blood cells.
T
Some immunocompetent cells will never be called to service in our lifetime.
T
Adaptive immunity is provided only by lymphocytes that secrete antibodies.
F
Both T cells and B cells must accomplish double recognition: They must simultaneously recognize self and nonself to be activated.
F
Which of the following is characteristic of antibodies?
composed of heavy and light polypeptide chains
The cells responsible for humoral immunity are the ________ cells.
B
The cells directly responsible for cellular immunity are the ________ cells.
cytotoxic T
Lymphocytes that destroy foreign cells or virus-infected cells are ________ cells.
cytotoxic T
Which of the following is associated with passive immunity?
passage of IgG antibodies from a pregnant mother to her fetus
Lymphocytes
respond to antigens.
Lymphocytes may be found in which of the following tissues or organs?
All of the answers are correct.
The redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to a local hyperemia caused by ________.
vasodilation
Stem cells that will form B cells or NK cells are found only in the
bone marrow.
The cells responsible for the production of circulating immunoglobulins are ________ cells.
plasma
T is to ________ as B is to ________.
thymus-dependent; bone marrow-derived
Stem cells that can form all types of lymphocytes are concentrated in the
red marrow.
Innate defenses include
All of the answers are correct.
If the thymus shrank and stopped making thymosins, we would expect to see an immediate decrease in the number of
T cells.
B lymphocytes develop immunocompetence in the ________.
bone marrow
Which of the following is not a type of T cell?
antigenic
Which of the following statements regarding NK cells is a false or incorrect statement?
NK cells are a type of neutrophil.
The process whereby neutrophils and other white blood cells are attracted to an inflammatory site is called ________.
chemotaxis
Small molecules that bind with self-proteins to produce antigenic substances are called ________.
haptens
In clonal selection of B cells, which substance is responsible for determining which cells will eventually become cloned?
antigen
Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in phagocytosis?
chemotaxis, adherence, ingestion, digestion, killing
Interferons ________.
interfere with viral replication within cells
Regulatory T cells ________.
may function in preventing autoimmune reactions
Select the correct definition about tissue grafts.
Isografts are between identical twins.
Which of the following is a part of the second line of defense against microorganisms?
phagocytes
Which of the following is characteristic of complete antigens?
reactivity with an antibody
Cancer cells and virus-infected body cells can be killed before activation of adaptive immunity by ________.
natural killer cells
Which of the following would be classified as a delayed hypersensitivity reaction?
allergic contact dermatitis
Complement proteins and antibodies coat a microorganism and provide binding sites, enabling macrophages and neutrophils to phagocytize the organism. This phenomenon is termed ________.
opsonization
Innate immune system defenses include ________.
phagocytosis
Which of the following statements is incorrect or false?
Class II MHC molecules appear only on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, thymic cells, and T cells that have been activated by exposure to antigens.
Immunocompetence ________.
is the ability of individual cells to recognize a specific antigen by binding to it
Fever ________.
production is regulated by chemicals that reset the body's thermostat to a higher setting
Select the correct statement about active and passive immunity.
Active and passive humoral immunity are both mechanisms of adaptive immunity that use antibodies.
Cytotoxic T cells ________.
are the only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells
Select the correct statement about immunodeficiency.
The causative agent in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a virus that recognizes CD4 proteins.
Which of the following is true of immediate hypersensitivities?
They involve IgE antibodies and the release of histamine from mast cells and basophils.
Natural killer (NK) cells ________.
can kill cancer cells before the immune system is activated
Helper T cells ________.
function in the adaptive immune system activation
function in the adaptive immune system activation
cytotoxic cells
Select the correct statement about antigens.
One antigen may have many different antigenic determinants and may therefore cause the formation of more than one antibody.
The primary immune response ________.
has a lag period while B cells proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells
Which of the following is not an autoimmune disease?
type II diabetes
Which of the following cells is the most critical cell in immunity?
helper T cell
Which of the following is true about the number of binding sites per functional antibody unit?
IgM contains 10 binding sites.
The body's innate defenses include all of the following, except
antibodies.
Each of the following is a physical barrier to infection, except
complement.
An inflammatory response is triggered when
mast cells release histamine and heparin.
Macrophages are derived from
monocytes.
Examples of physical barriers against pathogens include
All of the answers are correct.
Inflammation produces localized
All of the answers are correct.
Which of the following is not a method by which antibodies work?
activating cytokines
A sample of John's blood shows a high level of pyrogens. This would indicate that John
is running a fever.
Immunity that is genetically determined and present at birth is called ________ immunity.
innate
Adaptive defenses depend on the activities of
lymphocytes.
Defense of the body against a particular pathogen is provided by
adaptive immunity.
The first line of cellular defense against pathogens are the
phagocytes.
Characteristics of adaptive defenses include
All of the answers are correct.
Immunity that results from exposure to an antigen in the environment is called ________ immunity.
naturally acquired active
Immunity that results from antibodies that pass through the placenta from mother to fetus is called ________ immunity.
active WRONG
The following are steps in the cell-mediated immune response.
2, 4, 1, 5, 3, 6.
In passive immunization, the
body receives antibodies produced by other humans or by an animal.
In an experimental situation, a rabbit is exposed to a viral antigen to which it makes antibodies. These antibodies are then purified and injected into a human with the same viral disease. This is an example of
passive immunization.
Cells that help regulate the immune response are ________ cells.
helper T
Suppressor T cells act to
inhibit T and B cell activities.
Which of the following statements about MHC proteins is not true?
allow the body to differentiate its own cells from foreign cells WRONG
When an antigen is bound to a Class I MHC molecule, it can stimulate a ________ cell.
cytotoxic T
Class II MHC molecules are found only on which of the following?
lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells
When an antigen is bound to a Class II MHC protein, it can activate a ________ cell.
helper T
Helper T cells do all of the following, except
provide a rapid response to a future exposure to the antigen.
Stem cells that will form T cells develop in the
thymus.
Leslie has a bad sore throat and the lymph nodes in her neck are swollen. This would indicate that
the lymph node is actively producing phagocytes. WRONG
Class II MHC proteins are present in the plasma membrane only
in antigen-presenting cells and lymphocytes.
If the disulfide bonds in IgG were broken, how many protein chains would be set free?
4
Immunoglobulins that are most abundant and are responsible for resistance against many viruses, bacteria, and bacterial toxins are
IgG.
Immunoglobulins, formed of five subunits, that are the first antibodies to be produced in response to infection, are
IgM.
Immunoglobulins that attach to and sensitize mast cells and basophils are
IgE.
Immunoglobulins that are primarily found in glandular secretions such as saliva and tears are
IgA.
In order for a lymphocyte to respond to an antigen, the antigen must
bind to specific receptors on the lymphocyte surface.
bind to specific receptors on the lymphocyte surface.
helper T cells.
________ is the class of antibody first secreted in response to a new antigen.
IgM
Each IgG has ________ binding sites for attachment to antigenic determinants.
2
Newborns gain their immunity initially from
antibodies passed across the placenta from the mother.
Autoantibodies are
directed against the body's own antigens.
Inappropriate or excessive immune responses to antigens are
allergies.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes the disease known as AIDS selectively infects ________ cells.
helper T
Infection with the HIV virus occurs through
intimate contact with an infected person's body fluids.
The only antibodies that normally cross the placenta are
IgG.
T cells and B cells can be activated only by
exposure to a specific antigen at a specific site in a plasma membrane.
A sample of John's blood shows a high level of pyrogens. This would indicate that John
is running a fever.