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Antigen processing and presentation

is a way for a cell to give information about its activities.

Why would a body cell that is not a phagocyte need to present antigens?

Non-phagocytic body cells can become infected with a virus

How do phagocytes communicate to other cells what they have captured?

They present antigens from engulfed foreign cells

Which of the following best characterizes clonal selection?

The production of identical B cells producing the same antibody

An antigen that is potent enough to activate a B cell on its own is known as

T-independent antigens

What is produced by the process of clonal expansion?

Plasma cells and memory B cells

Based on the animation, T cells recognized the antigen displayed by what protein of the B cell?


How can a sufficient humoral immune response occur if a plasma cell only lives for a few days?

Each plasma cell can produce up to 2000 antibodies every second

What is apoptosis?

The process of programmed cell death

What is the function of the CD8 receptor?

Bind to MHC molecules

What is the fate of activated cytotoxic T-cells?

They proliferate into a clone of cells specific to the same antigen; some of these cells then differentiate into long-lived memory T-cells, while others mature to attack infected cells

Which molecule triggers apoptosis?


Which event happens first during cytotoxic T-cell activation?

CD8 binds to MHC molecules of infected cells

Which receptor on the helper T-cell recognizes the specific antigen from an antigen-presenting cell?


TH2 cells produce cytokines that activate

B cells

Which proteins on the antigen-presenting cell are recognized by the helper T-cell?

MHC proteins

When do helper T-cells develop into TH1 or TH2 cells?

After proliferation into a clonal population

Natural killer cells are activated by

TH1 cells

Phagocytosis is a process for engulfing large particles (>1μm). Which feature of antibodies will help to make particles larger, therefore enhancing phagocytosis?


The flu virus mutates fairly frequently. Its adhesive proteins change such that we have different "strains" of influenza each year. When a particular flu virus mutates such that its adhesive proteins change, which function of antibodies is disrupted?


__________________ stimulated with ___________ differentiate into __________, which secrete antibodies into the bloodstream.

B-cells, antigen, plasma cells

Innate immunity

Includes cilia, mucous, membranes, dendritic cells

Humoral immunity

Immunological response brought about by antibody production

Immunological response that kills infected host cells

Cellular immunity

Immature B cells

Uses BCRs to regognize epitope. 1st step in clonal selection

Dendritic Cells

Phagocytes that engulf anything foreign. Eventually display epitope to helper T-cells isng MHC 1 or 2

T-h cells

Lymphocytes that activate B cells and CTLs

Memory Cells

Differentiated B cells that are stored in lymph nodes to provide protection against future infections by the same pathogen

Plasma cells

produce and secrete antibodies

Cytotoxic T-cells

Kills infected host cells

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