Catherine de Médicis
Italian-born mother of French king, Charles IX who served as regent and tried (but failed) to prevent religious warfare between Calvinists and Catholics
King of Spain; most powerful ruler in Europe at the time. He reigned over the western Habsburg lands and all Spanish colonies recently settled in the new world
Battle of Lepanto
Site off the Greek coast where, in 1571, the allied Catholic forces of Philip II, Venice and the papacy defeated the Ottoman Turks in a great sea battle. Victory gave the Christian powers control of the Mediterranean.
English queen who oversaw the return of the Protestant Anglican church. In 1588, she was a part of England's successful defence of the realm against the Spanish Armada.
Peace of Westphalia
Settlement (1648) of the Thirty Years' War. Established enduring religious divisions in the Holy Roman Empire where Lutheranism dominated in the north; Calvinism in the area of the Rhine River, and Catholicism in the south.
"reason of state"
The political doctrine first proposed by Cardinal Richelieu of France, which put the state's interest over religion.
Trend toward making religious faith a private domain rather than directly connected to state power and science. Prompted a search for nonreligious explanations for political authority and natural phenomena
And artistic style of the 17th century which featured curves, exaggerated lighting, intense emotions, release from restraint, and a kind of artistic sensationalism.
Combination of experimental observation and mathematical deduction that was used to determine the laws of nature, which became the secular standard of truth.
The Laws of War and Peace
Published by Hugo Grotius. "Natural law" (laws of nature that give legitimacy to government)
Argued that natural law stands beyond reach of either secular or divine authority; should govern politics.
Defeat of the Spanish Armada
Elizabeth I ordered Mary Queen of Scots beheading (cousin), which causes Philip II to decide to intervene. He sends the armada from Lisbon towards the English Channel in May. The English scattered their armada by sending blazing fire ships in the midst.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Began with the joint marriage of a Huguenot and Bourbon. In August 24, Catholic mobs murder 3,000 Huguenots in Paris with 10,000 Huguenots dying in the provinces over the next six weeks. Huguenot pamphleteers proclaimed their right to resist a tyrant who worshipped idols. Constitutionalism used to justify resistance movements 16th century on.
Considered the greatest playwright of the ENglish language. Wrote 36 plays, comedies and tragedies; acted in one of the chief troupes. Plays were not set in contemporary England. They reflected concerns of his age: nature of power and the crisis of authority.
Thirty Years' War
Conflict between Catholics and Protestants within the Holy Roman Empire. This involved most European states. Power shifted from Habsburg powers toward France, England and Dutch Republic. There was much turmoil and suffering, and the growth of armies and bureaucracies.
French Wars of Religion
Calvinism spread in France after 1555. Genevan company of pastors sent missionaries supplied with false passports and often disguised as merchants. French Calvinists (Huguenots) were introduced. Huguenot and Catholic armies began fighting wars that threatened to tear the French nation into shreds.
Heliocentrism (Copernicus) proposed the Earth revolved around the sun. Galileo provided evidence - more - to support the heliocentric view. This challenged the doctrine that the heavens were perfect and unchanging. He built a telescope and was forbidden by the church to teach that the Earth moves.
Commonwealth of Poland and Lithuania
Poland and the grand duchy of Lithuania unite into a single commonwealth. Controlled territory, stretching from the Baltic sea to present-day Ukraine and Belarus. Country's nobles elected their king and placed severe limits on his authority.