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67 terms

Chapter 11 - DNA

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DNA
Abbreviation for Deoxyribonucleic Acid- The molecules carrying the body's genetic information: DNA is a double stranded in the shape of a double helix.
Chromosome
A rodlike structure in the cell nucleus, along which the genes are located; it is composed of DNA surrounded by other material, mainly proteins.
Polymer
A substance composed of a large number of atoms; these atoms are usually arranged in repeating untis, or monomers.
Nucleotide
The unit of DNA consisting of one of four bases- adenine, guanine, cytosine, or thymine - attached to a phosphate-sugar group.
Complementary Base Pairing
The specific pairing of Base A with T and Base C with G in double stranded DNA.
Proteins
Polymers of amino acids that play basic roles in the structures and functions of living things.
Amino Acids
The building blocks of proteins;there are twenty common amino acids; amino acids are linked to form a protein; the types of amino acids and the order in which they're linked determine the character of each protein.
Human Genome
The total DNA content found within the nucleus of a human cell; it is composed of approximately three billion base pairs of genetic information.
Replication
The synthesis of new DNA from existing DNA.
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
A technique for replicating or copying a portion of a DNA strand outside a living cell; the is technique leads to millions of copies of the DNA strand.
Primer
A short strand of DNA used to target a region of DNA for replication by PCR.
Hybridization
The process of joining two complementary strands of DNA to form a double-stranded molecule.
Tandem Repeat
A region of a chromosome that contains multiple copies of a core DNA sequence that are arranged in a repeating fashion.
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLP's)
Different Fragment lengths of base pairs that result from cutting a DNA molecule with restriction enzymes.
Short Tandem Repeat (STR)
A region of a DNA molecule that contains short segments consisting of three to seven repeating base pairs.
Electrophoresis
A technique for separating molecules through their migration on a support medium while under the influence of an electrical potential.
Multiplexing
A technique that simultaneously detects more than one DNA marker in a single analysis.
Amelogenin Gene
A genetic locus useful for determining gender.
Y-STRs
Short tandem repeats located on the human Y Chromosome
Mitochondria
Small structures located outside the nucleus of a cell; these structures supply energy to the cell; maternally inherited DNA is found in each Mitochondria.
Sequencing
A procedure used to determine the order of the base pairs that constitute DNA.
Picogram
one-trillonth of a gram, or 0.000000000001 gram.
Low Copy Number
Fewer than 18 DNA-bearing cells
Epithelial Cells
The out layer of skin cells; these DNA-bearing cells often fall off or are rubbed off onto objects retrieved from crime scenes.
Touch DNA
DNA from skin cells transferred onto the surface of an object by simple contact.
Substrate Control
An unstained object adjacent to an area on which biological material has been deposited.
Buccal Cells
Cells derived from the inner cheek lining
Gene
The fundamental unit of heredity is the ________
DNA
Each gene is actually composed of _____, specifically designed to carry out a single body function.
Polymer
A(n)_______ is a very large molecule made by linking a series of repeating units.
Nucleotide
A(n)_______ is composed of a sugar molecule, a phosphorus-containing group, and a nitrogen-containing molecule called a base.
Nucleotides
DNA is actually a very large molecule made by linking a series of ______ to form a natural polymer.
4
________ different bases are associated with the makeup of DNA
Double Helix
Watson and Crick demonstrated that DNA is composed of two strands coiled into the shape of a(n) ________.
Base T/Base C
The structure of DNA requires that pairing of Base A to ________ and base G to _________.
A-C-G-T
The base sequence T-G-C-A can be paired with the base sequence _______ in a double-helix configuration.
Proteins
The inheritable traits that are controlled by DNA arise out of DNA's ability to direct the production of ___________.
Proteins
____________are derived from a combination of up to 20 unknown amino acids.
Three
The production of an amino acid is controlled by a sequence of ________ bases on the DNA molecule.
True
T/F: Enzymes known as DNA polymerase assemble new DNA strands into a proper base sequence during replication.
True
T/F: DNA can be copied outside a living cell.
False
T/F: All of the letter sequences in DNA code for the production of proteins.
Two
In STR DNA typing, a typical DNA pattern shows (two,three) bands.
True
T/F: Specimens amenable to DNA typing are blood, semen, body tissues, and hair.
Short Tandem Repeats (STR)
Short DNA segments containing repeating sequences of three to seven bases are called______.
False
T/F: The longer the DNA strand, the less susceptible it is to degradation.
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
The short length of STRs allows them to be replicated by ______.
True
T/F: Enzymes known as DNA polymerases assemble new DNA strands into a proper base sequence based off the template strand during replication.
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
DNA evidence at a crime scene can copied by the processes of the _______ with the aid of a DNA polymerase and specific primers.
Tandem Repeats
Used as marker for identification purposes, _____ are locations on the chromosome that contain short sequences that repeat themselves with the DNA molecule and in great abundance throughout the human genome.
CODIS
(CODIS,AFIS) maintains local, state, and national databases of DNA profiles from convicted offenders, unsolved crime-scene evidence, and profiles of missing people.
18
Amazingly, the sensitivity of STR profiling requires only ______ DNA-bearing cells to obtain an STR profile.
Infectious
During evidence collection, all body fluids must be assumed to be ______ and handled with latex gloved hands.
Multiplexing
The concept of (CODIS, Multiplexing) involves simultaneous detection of more than one DNA marker.
capillary electrophoresis
DNA fragments can be separated and identified by (gas chromatography, capillary electrophoresis).
Male, Female
The amelogenin gene show two bands for a (Male, Female) and one band for a (Male, Female)
Male
Y-STR typing is useful when one is confronted with a DNA mixture containing more than one (Male, Female) contributor.
Mother
Mitochondrial DNA is inherited form the (Mother, Father)
True
T/F: Mitochondrial DNA is more plentiful in the human cell than is nuclear DNA.
Two
(Two,Four) regions of mitochondrial DNA have been found to be highly variable in the human population.
True
T/F: Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a part of the process used in the forensic analysis of RFLP, STRs, and Mitochondrial DNA.
13
The national DNA database in the United States has standardized on _______ STRs for entry into the database.
False
T/F: Y-STR data is normally entered into the CODIS database collection.
Dry
Small amounts of blood are best submitted to a crime laboratory in a (wet, dry) condition.
False
T/F: Airtight packages make the best containers for blood-containing evidence
EDTA Enthylenediamine Tetraacetic Acid
Whole Blood collected for DNA-typing purposes must be placed in a vacuum containing the preservative _______.
Two
A typical STR DNA type enhancing from a single individual shows a (one, two, three) band pattern.