Quiz 1 and Test 1 ESS
Terms in this set (67)
if a system responds to a change in input by moving further away from its equilibrium condition, what type of feedback has occurred?
3 inorganic earth realms are the
hydrosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere
glacier melting, dark color surfaces ; feedback?
diameter of earth is largest when measured around the...
angular distance measured north and south of the equator from the center of the earth is termed
standard time zones
are 15 degrees wide bc earth rotates through that distance in one hour
which projections do great circle routes appear as straight lines
what is not true of sunspot?
they are brighter than the rest of the sun's surface
which of the following is not a consequence of the solar wind
creation of earth's magnetosphere
shorter wavelength to longer wavelength
ultraviolet, visible, infrared
the uneven distribution of insolation by latitude is primarily a result of
earth's curvature, which presents varied angles to parallel solar rays
whats true of the numbers of hours of daylight?
the number of hours of daylight varies depending on the latitude of the observer
net radiation refers to
difference in amount of incoming and outgoing radiation
earths rotation is described as
west to east
based on temperature, the atmosphere is divided into
4 regions: from troposphere to thermosphere
the tropopause altitude is highest______ because of the ______
at the equator; intense heating from the surface
temperatures within the stratosphere
increase with altitude because of the absorption of ultraviolet radiation
in which 2 atmospheric zones does temperature decrease with altitude?
troposphere and mesosphere
which of the following is correct regarding lapse rates in the troposphere
the environmental lapse rate refers to the actual lapse rate at any particular times and may differ substantially from the normal lapse rate
starting at the maximum altitude and progressing towards the earth's surface, what is correct order?
thermosphere, mesosphere, stratosphere, troposphere
temperature inversion occur
when surface temperatures are lower than warmer than overlying air
a vertical air current that is generated by temperature-induced density differences is an example of heat transfer by
earth's average overall albedo is
the sky (lower tropopause) appears blue in color because of
june solstice? (diagram)
the arctic circle is completely within the circle of illumination
relationship between insolation and air temperature through the course of the day shows
air temperature reaches a maximum afternoon, whereas insolation reaches a maximum at noon
which of the following would be true for the net radiation balance in a midlatitude location
there is a surplus of Net R during the summer and a deficit during the winter
when water evaporates, the energy that was used to evaporate the water
is stored as latent heat in the evaporated water
which combination of NET R terms would be associated with a hot, dry climate?
LE small, H large, G large
the single most important control on temperature is
how does evaporation effect land-water heating differences
evaporation tends to lower temperatures more over water bodies than over land
during the day, clouds___ insolation, lowering daily maximum temperatures; at night, clouds_____ longwave energy, thereby raising minimum nighttime temperatures
reflect; absorb and reradiate
the land surface cools off more rapidly at night than water does because?
the energy is stored in a shallow layer near the surface of the land, and so it can be radiated away faster
in general, more moderate temperature patterns
indicate maritime influences
what is true (hemisphere)?
n. hemisphere temperatures are more strongly dominated by continentality than are s. hemisphere temperature
air flow is initiated by
pressure gradient force
on a weather map of air pressure, what can you infer from a closer spacing of isobars?
a steep pressure gradient creating a faster flow of air
the deflection produced by the coriolis force is caused by
the earth's rotation on the its axis
which is true of air flowing into low pressure center?
air converges and ascends
if earth did not rotate, air would flow
perpendicular to the isobars, i.e., straight across the isobars
which of the following is an example of secondary circulation?
migratory high and low pressure systems
which of the following primary pressure areas are produced by dynamic factors, rather than thermal factors?
subtropical high and subpolar low
the intertropical convergence zone is characterized by
convergence and uplift of warm surface air
rotation type (low and high)
surface wind direction (low and high)
vertical wind direction (low and high)
surface wind rotation (N. Hem)
surface wind rotation (S. Hem)
associated weather (low and high)
cyclonic and anticyclonic
convergent and divergent
upward and downward
counterclockwise and clockwise
clockwise and coutnerclockwise
poor and fair
air flow in a N. Hem high pressure zone is
downward, outward, and clockwise
mountain and valley breezes
involve warm air rising upslope during the day , creating an area of low pressure; at night it is reversed with a low pressure area forming on the valley floor
during the day along the coast, the wind tends to blow toward the ______ because ______
land; land heats more rapidly than water
the ITCZ is associated with
the equatorial low-pressure trough
in the N. Hem, winds spiraling counterclockwise into a low pressure area are
when water condenses, it ___ heat energy and ____ the surrounding air
if the amount of water vapor in the air remained constant, but the air temperature increased throughout the day, the relative humidity would
what would cause the evaporation rate to decrease?
increased relative humidity
the smaller the difference in temperature between the wet bulb and dry bulb on a sling psychrometer, the ______ the air is and the _____
wetter; closer the air temperature is to dew point
when the ELR is between the dry and moist adiabatic lapse rates conditions are described as
normal lapse rate
a mT air mass _____ than a cT air mass
forms over an ocean and is usually more humid
air rising forcibly lifted upslope when it meets a topographic barrier such as a mountain is an example of _____ lifting
the severity of storm activity along a warm front is _____ than that along most cold fronts because the rate of uplift is ____ along a warm front
hurricanes derive their energy from
the latent heat of condensation
summer afternoon thundershowers in the southeastern US are more likely a result of
the severity of storm activity along a cold front is ____ than that along most warm fronts because the rate of uplift is____ along a cold front
the subsurface are in which all pore spaces are completely fill with water is known as
zone of saturation
actual evapotranspiration (ACTET) is determined by
deficit subtracted from potential evaporation
soil moisture that plants are capable of accessing and using is called
if one were to map a vertical profile of groundwater resources, which of the following is correct order from top to bottom?
zone of aeration, water table, zone of saturation, impermeable rock
the amount of water associated with the wilting point in clay is _____ than that for sand and silt
Berkeley, CA has the highest amount of precipitation during the
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