77 terms

Looking at Movies ED.4- Ch 6

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Cinematography
The process of capturing images on moving images or film or a digital storage device.
Shot
One uninterrupted run of the camera and the recording on film, video or other medium resulting from that run.
Take
Refers to the number of times a shot is taken.
Setup
One camera position and everything associated with it.
Film Stock
Celluloid used to record movies.
Speed
Exposure index
Colorization
Use digital technology to color a film that was originally intended to be shown in black and white.
Additive Color Systems
method with added color to black and white film stock (hand coloring, stenciling, tinting and toning)
Subtractive Color System,
tow color system later refined to three color; introduced for cartoons and live-action. Modern color cinematography
Widescreen Aspect Ratio
Any aspect ratio wider than 1.33:1, the standard ratio until the early 1950s.
Focusable Spotlights
produce hard, direct spotlight beam or a more indirect beam
Flood Lights
Produce, respectively, hard (mirror like) and soft (diffuse) light.
Reflector Board
A piece of lighting equipment, but not really a lighting instrument, because it does not rely on bulbs to produce illumination. Essentially, a double-sided board that pivots in a U-shaped holder. One side is a hard, smooth surface that reflects hard light; the other is a soft, textured surface that reflects softer fill light.
Three-Point System
Perhaps the best-known lighting convention in feature filmmaking, a system that employs three sources of light -- key light, fill light, and backlight -- each aimed from a different direction and position in relation to the subject.
Key Light
The main light on a subject.
Fill Light
The lighting instrument that is placed opposite the key light to provide illumination on the other side of the talent's face or object in the shot
Lighting Ratio
balance between key and fill lights
Low-key Lighting
A lighting design where there is a stark contrast between the light and shadowed areas of the frame.
High-key Lighting
Image that creates comparatively little contrast between the light and dark areas of the shot. Shadows are fairly transparent and brightened by fill light.
Backlight
Usually positioned behind and above the subject and the camera and used to create high lights along the edges of the subject as a means of separating it from the background and increasing its appearance of three-dimensional.
Production Values
Amount and quality of human and physical.
Lens
A clear piece of curved glass or plastic that bends passing light to focus or spread the light rays
Apeture
an adjustable opening on a camera
Focal Length
the distance from a lens to its focus
Iris
Limits amount of light passing through a lens
short-focal-length lens
Also known as wide-angle lens. A lens that creates the illusion of depth within a frame, albeit with some distortion at the edges of the frame. Compare long-focal-length lens, middle-focal-length lens, and zoom lens.
long-focal-length lens
Also known as telephoto lens. A lens that flattens the space and depth of an image and thus distorts perspectival relations. Compare middle-focal-length lens, short-focal-length lens, and zoom lens.
middle-focal-length lens
Also known as normal lens. A lens that does not distort perspectival relations. Compare long-focal-length lens, short-focal-length lens, and zoom lens.
Zoom Lens
(variable-focal lens) shrinks or increases the focal length in a continuous motion, and thus stimulates effect of movement of camera toward/ away from the subject
Prime Lenses
lenses that have one fixed focal length
Depth of Field
the distance between the minimum object distance and the furthest point from the camera a subject can be positioned while remaining in focus
Rack Focus
A change of the point of focus from one subject to another.
Planes
Areas of the image
Framing
Process by which the cinematographer determines what will appear within the borders of the image during the shot.
Aspect Ratio
Relationship of an object's width to its height
Extreme Long Shot
Typically photographed at a great distance, the subject is often a wide view of a location, which usually includes general background information
Establishing Shot
A shot, usually involving a distant framing, that shows the spatial relations among the important figures, objects, and setting in a scene.
Long Shot (LS)
Generally contains the full body of one or more characters
Medium Long Shot (MLS)
Used to photograph one or more characters, usually from the knees up, as well as some of the background
Medium Shot (MS)
Usually shows a characters from the waist up
Close-up (CU)
the camera appears very close to the subject, so that when the image is projected, most of the screen will be filled with a face and it's expression, a hand, or some other relatively small part of a larger whole
medium close-up
Shows a character from approximately the middle of the chest to the top of the head.
Extreme Close-up (XCU or ECU)
Produced when the camera records a very small detail of the subject.
Two-shot
A shot featuring two actors.
Three-shot
A shot featuring three characters.
blimp
A soundproofed enclosure somewhat larger than a camera, in which the camera may be mounted to prevent its sounds from reaching the microphone.
Deep Space Composition
An approach to composition within the frame that places figures in all three planes (background, middle-ground, and foreground) of the frame, thus creating an illusion of depth.
Deep-focus Cinematography
The process of rendering the figures on all planes (Background, middle-ground, foreground) of a deep-space composition in focus.
Rule of Thirds
It takes the form of a grid pattern that, when superimposed on the image, divides it into horizontal thirds representing the foreground, middle-ground and background planes and into vertical thirds that break up those planes into further elements.
Shooting Angle
The level and height of the camera in relation to the subject being photographed.
Eye-level Shot
made from an observers eye level and usually implies that the camera's attitude towards the subject being photographed is neutral.
High-angle Shot
The camera is above the action and typically implies the observer;s sense of superiority to the subject being photographed.
Low-angle Shot
The camera is below the action and typically places the observer in the position of feeling helpless in the presence of an obviously superior force.
Dutch-angle Shot
The camera is tilted from its normal horizontal and vertical position so that it is no longer straight, giving the viewer the impression that the world in the frame is out of balance.
Aerial-view Shot (Birds Eye View)
An extreme point of view shot is taken from an aircraft or very high crane and implies the observer's omniscience.
Scale
The size or placement of a particular object or a part of a scene in relation to the rest-a relationship determined by the shot used and the position of the camera.
Pan Shot
The horizontal movement of a camera mounted on the gyroscopic head of a stationary tripod.
Tilt Shot
The vertical movement of a camera mounted on a gyroscopic head of a stationary tripod.
Dolly Shot
Taken by a camera fixed to a wheeled support
Dolly
A camera fixed to a wheeled support
Dolly-in
Camera moves towards the subject
Dolly-out
Camera moves away from the subject
Tracking Shot
A type of dolly shot that moves smoothly with the action (alongside, above, beneath, behind, or ahead of it) when the camera mounted is on a wheeled vehicle that runs on a set of tracks.
Zoom-in
Zoom shot magnifies the image.
Crane Shot
made from a camera mounted on an elevating arm that is, in turn, mounted on a vehicle capable of moving under its own power.
Steadicam
a device attached to the operator's body that steadies the camera, avoids the jumpiness associated with the handheld camera, and is now much used for smooth, fast, and intimate camera angles.
Omniscient POV
Shows what the omniscient camera sees, typically from a high angle.
Single Character's POV
The shot is made with the camera close tho the line of sight of a character (or animal or surveillance camera), shows what that person would be seeing of the action
Group POV
Shows us what a group of characters would see at their level.
Slow Motion
Decelerates action by photographing it at a rate greater than the normal 24 fps so that it takes place in cinematic time less rapidly than the real action that took place before the camera.
Fast Motion
Accelerates by photographing it at a rate less than normal filming, then projecting it at normal speed so that it takes place cinematically more rapidly.
Long Take
Shot that can run anywhere from one to ten minutes.
Special Effects (SPFX or FX)
Technology that creates images that would be too dangerous, too expensive, or in some cases, simply impossible to achieve with the traditional cinematographic materials.
In-camera Effects
Created in the production camera on the original negative.
Mechanical Effects
Create objects or events mechanically on the set and in front of the camera
Laboratory Effects
created on a fresh piece of film stock
Process Shot
Made of action in front of a rear projection screen that has on it still or moving images for the background.
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