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John Ruskin

English Victorian Art Critic, valued art for Naturalism, he believed if Art was not natural it was bad.


Ability to mimic nature.

James Whistler

American Painter, believed Art served no socail purpose,believed color matters most, believed music had a connection to art.

Nocturne In Black and Gold

painting by Whistler


Ruskin called Whistler this, it means overly dressed dandy/fool.


Regional accent in London for someone in a lower class.

The Gentle Art of Making Enemies

James Whistler's Memoir

The Academy (Sevententh Century)

The Academy was made up of varying schools that that taught based on darwing, students were instructed to draw from plaster castsand then from nude models, then they were allowed to paint. Women were not allowed in the academy.


Exhibitions galleries where each Academy would hold annual awards and exhibtions.


A style of artwork that refrences ancient Greek and Roman art. Emphasis on Englightment, inspired by classical myths, idealized beauty,heavy emphasis on allegory.


A visual narative where the person or object visually represented contains symbolic meaning.

David, Oath of Horatii

Example of Neo-Classicism and History painting.

One Point Perspective(Linear Perspective)

Created in the early Renaissance to Create the illusion of Space within two-dimensional work.

Vanishing Point

Parrel Lines in a work coverge at a singal point on the horizon of a work.


Modeling creates the illusion of depth through the use of light and shadow, termed chiaroscuro for the purpose of verisimilitude.


The Apperance of being real.

Natural Light Source

There is a single light source in academic painting, the sunlight is coming from one direction, casting the approiate shadows within the space.

Heirarchy Of Genres

The Academic ways of measuring art was by subject matter. This is how critics like Ruskin, valued Art.

Still Life

Lowest. Paint is obvious, all objects in focus, concentration on storytelling highlighting everyday textures of life and nobilty of everyday life.


2 Lowest. Has two categories, View and Composed/Ideal Landscape


(Landscape) A scene that could be real

Composed/Ideal Landscape

A scene not in front of the artist, could contain mythological or relgious elements that tell a story.

Pussin, Landscape With Burial of Phocion, 1648

Example of landscape


3rd Lowest. Picture of an actual personal idenity that has elements of the subject's personality. Flattering to the subject.Typically for private viewing.

John Singer Sargent, Madame X 1883-84

example of a portrait

Narrative Painting/Genre Painting

4th lowest. Scenes from everyday life. Not idealized.

Tanner, The Banjo Lesson,1893

Example of narrative painting

History Painting

HIGHEST. most imporant type of painting. Scenes from history or religion. Drama and charecters made it imporant art, large figures dominate background, always idealized.

Bouguereau, Nymphs and Satyr, 1873

Example of History Painting


Style of art that opposed Neo-Classicism. Emphasized Human emotion in their art.


Western fasination with the exotic,sexualized east

Blake, Nebuchadnezzar,1795

example of romanticism

Ingres,Grande Odalisque,1814

Example of oreintalism, romanticism

The Sublime

Romntics had interest in it. A nineteenth century concept of that which is both terrifying and exhilarating, a feeling of overwhelimg awe, especailly at the power of nature.

Turner, The Burning of the Houses of Parliment 1834

Example of sublime romanticism


Heavly used in romanticism. Clear evidence of paint, brushstrokes and texture.


Ability to project images onto a surface was known since ancient times, plato used in his allegory of his cave.

Camera obscura

Used by renaissance artists. It was either a box or a darkened roomed with a pinpoint or lens on one side. The refractive nature of light projects an upside down image of the scene outside the box/room onto the opposite surface.

Joseph Niepce

first photographer


1837. A single image is recorded in photosensitive chemicals on a copper plate then encased in glass to protect the image from damage by handling.

Daguerre, Untitled Daguerreotype 1837

example of Daguerreotype

Daguerre, Boulevard du Temple 1838

example of daguerreotype

Avant Garde

1850. Experimental artists who adopted a critical stance against the academy and heiarchy of genres.

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