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chitin layer, B-glucan layer, mannoprotein layer
Name three elements of fungal cell wall structure. (inside to out)
Which fungal cell wall later is a polymer mainly of unbranched chains of N-acetyl-glucoasmine?
Which fungal cell wall layer? Most of the wall strength is due to fibers of this interwoven between other macromolecules.
superficial mycoses and deep mycoses
What are two types of fungus classification based on infection type?
Takes in water, fuses with cell membrane and releases water out and repeats
Describe ohw the contractile vacule works in protozoa.
microscopic, eukaryotic, non photosynthetic, unicellular or multicellular with no tissue development, no cell wall
What are the 5 characteristics of protozoa?
Eukaryotic, multicellular or multinucleate, chitin=cell wall, growth of thread-like filaments (hyphae), decomposers, asexual reproduction via spores
What are 6 characteristics of microscopic pathogenic fungi?
Chemoheterotrophic: Carbon source and energy source
Bacteria are _______ and have what two major nutrient sources?
Small metabolic breakdown products of macromolecules. ex. Sugars, amino acids, fatty acids, and nucleotides
exoenzyme secretion, breakdown of macromolecules, transport of small metabolites inside via permeases
What are three parts of nutrient acquisition in bacteria?
splits glucose GC into 2 pyruvate 3C, universal energy-yielding pathway and produces 2ATPs/glucose
What are the three important things that occur during glycolysis?
Begins with pyruvate, oxidizes it to CO2, produces 2 ATPs and produces 8 NADH and 2 FADH2
Describe the Kreb's/Citric Acid cycle part of respiration.
Harvests energy stored in NADH and FADH2 and produces lots of ATP
Describe the Electron Transport Chain part of Respiration.
Allosteric control and turns on/off enzymes
Regulation of Enzyme Activity is under _______ which ________.
In a process known as ________, the allosteric regulators shut down at enzyme #1.
If a gene product is not needed, transcription is blocked and if a gene product is required, transcriptional block is inhibited
Explain Transcriptional control of gene expression in the regulation of enzyme synthesis.
Turns transcription of structural genes on and off
Describe the function of the regulatory genes in the lac operon.
Synthesized as one mRNA that codes for multiple proteins (operon) and codes for proteins that are enzymes
Describe the role of structural genes in the lac operon.
1. Transport lactose into the cell 2. break down lactose to simple sugars 3. allows lactose to be utilized as a carbon and energy source
How do the structural genes code for proteins that are enzymes?
When no lactose is present, the repressor binds to the operator when lactose is absent and goes to _______ to be produced
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