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Chap. 10, 11, 17, 18

How do we define an attitude?

A psychological tendency expressed when we evaluate a particular entity with some degree of favor or disfavor

How is an attitude formed?

- Experience
- Social Learning

What is likely to occur when required job behavior and one's attitude conflict?

Job disatisfaction

What do we call it if one maintains their membership with a firm because of significant exit barriers?

Continence Commitment

What is the definition of organizational citizenship behavior?

Behavior that is above and beyond the call of duty

What is the definition of job satisfaction?

a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experience

What is the relationship, if any, between job satisfaction and organizational performance?

Most believe that happy or satisfied employees are more productive at work

How do we define the type of organizational commitment that is based on an individual's desire to remain in an organization?

Affective Commitment

What, if any, is the correlation between job satisfaction and absenteeism?

The more satisfied, the less absences

What do we call counterproductive behavior that violates organizational norms and causes harm to others in the organization?

Workplace Deviance Behavior

What are the major aspects of the source characteristics affecting persuasion?

- trustworthiness
- attractiveness
- expertise

When one's personal values and the commonly held values of the organization and society are in accord it is described as?

Ethical Behavior

What are terminal values? Give examples?

Represent the goals to be achieved, or the end states of existence.

Define motivation.

the process of arousing and sustaining goal-directed behavior

What is the Protestant Work Ethic and who advanced the notion?

- Weber
- Encouraged hard work on the grounds that prosperous workers were motre likely to go to heaven.

What is Scientific Management and who introduced the idea? Who in supported the concept and advanced?

- Cooperation between management and labor to increase profit
- Taylor

What is the "invisible hand" and who formulated the concept?

- Adam Smith
- Free market to explain to explain the motivation for individual behavior

What is Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs? How does it work? Starts with, ends with?

- Physiological
- Safety and Security
- Love
- Esteem
- Self actualization

Who advanced "need theory" by identifying behavior likely to be shown?

- McClelland's - Manifeat needs, called (AAP)
- Achievement
- Affiliation
- Power

According to Herzberg, what is the major difference between Motivation and Hygiene factors? How do they work?

Hygine: Job Disatisfaction
Motivation: Job Satisfaction

What are the "new" ideas in motivation?

- Eustress, Strength, and Hope: Positive Organizational Behavior
- Positive energy, Fully engagement, Translating what was learned from high-performance athletes for the use of Fortune 500 executives and managers.

What is Eustress?

Healthy, normal stress

What is the motivational force in Equity Theory?

internal motivation, equity theory is concerned with the social processes that influence motivation and behavior.

What are the factors in Expectancy Theory? How do they work?

- People expect certain outcomes of behavior and performance.
- People believe that the effort they put forth is related to the performance they achieve and the outcomes they receive.

What were the factors in Pavlov's animal learning research?

Classical Conditioning

What is the foundation of operant conditioning?

Modifying behavior by following specific behaviors with positive or negative consequences.

What are: punishment, negative reinforcement, positive reinforcement and extinction and how do they work?

Operant Conditioning

What is the basis for social learning theory?

Learning from the behavior from other people

What is self- efficacy and how is it developed?

an individual's internal expectancy to perform a specific task effectively

What facilitates performance feedback?

- Performance Appraisals

What roles does participation in goal setting play?

- Increases work motivation and task performance
- Reduce role stree associated with conflicting or confusing situations
- Improve accuracy and validity of performance evaluation

What is the MBO process? What is the first step?

- a goal-setting program based on interaction and negotiation between employees and managers
- The employee writing an "employee's letter" to the manager

What increases the likelihood that performance feedback will lead to improved performance?

Performance Management

What increases the reliability of an effective performance appraisal system?

Situational factors affecting the evaluator, such as mood or timing of the evaluation

What are the various reinforcement schedules and which appears to be the most powerful n stimulating desired behavior?

- Continuous
- Intermittent
- Fixed Ratio
- Variable
- Fixed Interval
- Variable Interval


The systematic application of scientific knowledge to a product, process, or service

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