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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Sensory&Motor Tracts: MOTOR OUTPUT
  2. Protective Nerve Coverings: NERVE FIBER
  3. Protective Nerve Coverings: ENDONEURIUM
  4. Reflexes & Reflex Arcs: REFLEX
  5. Branches of Spinal Nerves: PLEXUSES
  1. a - the axon and its associated glial cells form this.
    - is a process projecting from the cell body of a neuron.
  2. b - this is known to be a fast, involuntary, unplanned sequence of actions that occurs in response to a particular stimulus.
  3. c - each nerve fiber sits in this loose connective tissue.
    - consists of of a mesh of collagen fibers, fibroblast's, and macrophages surrounded by endoneurial fluid (extracellular fluid) derived from the capillaries.
    - this fluid nourishes the neuron and provides the necessary environment for its function of propagating action potentials.
  4. d - axons from the anterior rami of spinal nerves, except for thoracic nerves(T2-T12) do not go directly to the body structures they supply. instead they form networks of axons on both the left and right side of the body joined w/ various numbers of axons from anterior rami of adjacent nerves.
    -the main plexuses are:
    1.) Cervical Plexus
    2.) Brachial Plexus
    3.) Lumbar Plexus
    4.) Sacral Plexus
  5. e - motor output to skeletal muscles travels down the spinal cord in two types of descending pathways:
    1.) Direct
    2.) Indirect

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. - these reflexes involve contraction of skeletal muscles.
  2. - this is a somatic branch that runs in the musculoskeletal wall of the body
    - this branch serves the deep muscles and skin of the posterior surface of the trunk.
  3. - this pathway includes:
    1.) Lateral Corticospinal
    2.) Anterior Corticospinal
    3.) Corticobulbar Tracts
    - they convey nerve impulses that originate in cerebral cortex destined to cause precise, voluntary movements of skeletal muscle.
  4. - this nerves supplies the anteromedial muscles of the forearm and most of the muscles of the hand.
  5. - this is a somatic branch that runs in the musculoskeletal wall of the body.
    - this branch serves the muscles and structures of the upper and lower limbs and the muscles and skin of the lateral and anterior regions of the trunk.

5 True/False questions

  1. Internal Anatomy of Spinal Cord: ANTERIOR(ventral) GRAY HORNS- these horns are b/w the anterior and posterior gray horns.
    - are present only in the thoracic, upper lumbar, and sacral segments of the spinal cord.
    - contain the cell bodies of autonomic motor nuclei that regulate activity of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands.

          

  2. External Anatomy of Spinal Cord: TWO ENLARGEMENTS- from an exterior view of the spinal cord, two enlargements can be seen:
    1.) Cervical Enlargement - is the superior enlargement that extends from C4-T1. Nerves to and from the upper limbs arise from this enlargement.
    2.) Lumbar Enlargement - is the inferior enlargement, extends from T9-T12. Nerves to and from the lower limbs arise from here.

          

  3. The Major Plexuses: CERVICAL PLEXUS- the roots of (anterior rami) of spinal nerves L4-L5 & S1-S4 form this plexus.
    - this plexus supplies the buttocks, perineum, and lower limbs.
    - the largest nerve in the body, the Sciatic Nerve, arises from this plexus, also the Pudendal nerve.
    *more info on Pg 602-603

          

  4. External Anatomy of Spinal Cord: FILUM TERMINALE- arises from the conus medullaris.
    - is an extension of the pia mater that extends inferiorly and blends with the arachnoid mater and dura mater to anchor spinal cord to coccyx.

          

  5. External Anatomy of Spinal Cord: CAUDA EQUINA- arises from the conus medullaris.
    - is an extension of the pia mater that extends inferiorly and blends with the arachnoid mater and dura mater to anchor spinal cord to coccyx.