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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Sensory&Motor Tracts: POSTERIOR COLUMNS
  2. White Matter Columns
  3. Sensory&Motor Tracts: SPINOTHALAMIC TRACTS-Lateral & Anterior
  4. Brachial Plexus: RADIAL NERVE
  5. Branches of Spinal Nerves: PLEXUSES
  1. a - each column contains bundles of nerve fibers that may extend up or down the spinal cord called tracts.
    * Sensory (Ascending) Tracts - consist of axons that conduct nerve impulses from the spinal cord toward the brain.
    *Motor (Descending) Tracts - consist of axons that carry nerve impulses away from the brain down the spinal cord.
    -both tracts are continuous w/ sensory and motor tracts of the brain.
  2. b - include the Gracile Fasciculus and Cuneate Fasciculus, which carry nerve impulses for several kinds of of sensations that includes:
    1.) Proprioception - awareness of positions/movements of muscles, tendons, and joints
    2.) Discriminative Touch
    3.) Two-Point Discrimination - ability to distinguish touching of two diff points on the skin
    4.) Light Pressure Sensations -
    5.) Vibration Sensations
  3. c - axons from the anterior rami of spinal nerves, except for thoracic nerves(T2-T12) do not go directly to the body structures they supply. instead they form networks of axons on both the left and right side of the body joined w/ various numbers of axons from anterior rami of adjacent nerves.
    -the main plexuses are:
    1.) Cervical Plexus
    2.) Brachial Plexus
    3.) Lumbar Plexus
    4.) Sacral Plexus
  4. d - these tracts convey nerve impulses for sensing pain, temperature, itching, tickling, deep pressure, and a crude, poorly localized sense of touch.

    Lateral: sense Pain and Temperature
    Anterior: sense Crude touch and Deep Pressure
  5. e - this nerve supplies the muscles on the posterior aspect of the arm and forearm.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. - these are clusters of neuronal cell bodies, as functional groups.
    *Sensory Nuclei - receive input from receptors via sensory neurons.
    *Motor Nuclei - provide output to effector tissues via motor neurons
  2. - this matter consists of bundles of myelinated axons of sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons.
    - also organized into regions called columns:'
    1.) Anterior(ventral) white columns
    2.) Posterior (dorsal) White columns
    3.) Lateral White Columns
    -each column contains distinct bundles of axons having a common origin or destination, carrying similar info.
  3. - these are the roots of spinal nerves emerging from the lower part of the spinal cord.
    - may resemble fine hairs such as "horse's tail"
  4. - this is the middle meninx(meninges), and is an avascular covering.
    - is connective tissue that resembles a spider webs arrangement of collagen fibers and some elastic fibers.
    - deep to Dura Mater.
    *Subdural Space - is a space b/w dura mater and arachnoid mater, which contains interstitial fluid.
  5. - two grooves penetrate the white matter of the spinal cord and divide it into right and left sides.
    - this is a narrow groove on the posterior (dorsal) side.

5 True/False questions

  1. Sensory&Motor Tracts: MOTOR OUTPUT- motor output to skeletal muscles travels down the spinal cord in two types of descending pathways:
    1.) Direct
    2.) Indirect

          

  2. Protective Nerve Coverings: ENDONEURIUM- each nerve fiber sits in this loose connective tissue.
    - consists of of a mesh of collagen fibers, fibroblast's, and macrophages surrounded by endoneurial fluid (extracellular fluid) derived from the capillaries.
    - this fluid nourishes the neuron and provides the necessary environment for its function of propagating action potentials.

          

  3. Sensory&Motor Tracts: SPINOCEREBELLAR TRACTS- this pathway includes:
    1.) Rubrospinal
    2.) Tectospinal
    3.) Vestibulospinal Tracts
    - they convey nerve impulses that govern automatic movements and help coordinate body movements w/ visual stimuli.
    -also maintain skeletal muscle tone, sustain contraction of postural muscles, and play a major role in equilibrium by regulating muscle tone in response to head movement.

          

  4. External Anatomy of Spinal Cord: TWO ENLARGEMENTS- from an exterior view of the spinal cord, two enlargements can be seen:
    1.) Cervical Enlargement - is the superior enlargement that extends from C4-T1. Nerves to and from the upper limbs arise from this enlargement.
    2.) Lumbar Enlargement - is the inferior enlargement, extends from T9-T12. Nerves to and from the lower limbs arise from here.

          

  5. Internal Anatomy of Spinal Cord: ANTERIOR(ventral) GRAY HORNS- contain somatic motor nuclei, which are clusters of cell bodies of somatic motor neurons that provide nerve impulses for contraction of skeletal muscles.

          

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