5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- Sensory&Motor Tracts: POSTERIOR COLUMNS
- White Matter Columns
- Sensory&Motor Tracts: SPINOTHALAMIC TRACTS-Lateral & Anterior
- Brachial Plexus: RADIAL NERVE
- Branches of Spinal Nerves: PLEXUSES
- a - each column contains bundles of nerve fibers that may extend up or down the spinal cord called tracts.
* Sensory (Ascending) Tracts - consist of axons that conduct nerve impulses from the spinal cord toward the brain.
*Motor (Descending) Tracts - consist of axons that carry nerve impulses away from the brain down the spinal cord.
-both tracts are continuous w/ sensory and motor tracts of the brain.
- b - include the Gracile Fasciculus and Cuneate Fasciculus, which carry nerve impulses for several kinds of of sensations that includes:
1.) Proprioception - awareness of positions/movements of muscles, tendons, and joints
2.) Discriminative Touch
3.) Two-Point Discrimination - ability to distinguish touching of two diff points on the skin
4.) Light Pressure Sensations -
5.) Vibration Sensations
- c - axons from the anterior rami of spinal nerves, except for thoracic nerves(T2-T12) do not go directly to the body structures they supply. instead they form networks of axons on both the left and right side of the body joined w/ various numbers of axons from anterior rami of adjacent nerves.
-the main plexuses are:
1.) Cervical Plexus
2.) Brachial Plexus
3.) Lumbar Plexus
4.) Sacral Plexus
- d - these tracts convey nerve impulses for sensing pain, temperature, itching, tickling, deep pressure, and a crude, poorly localized sense of touch.
Lateral: sense Pain and Temperature
Anterior: sense Crude touch and Deep Pressure
- e - this nerve supplies the muscles on the posterior aspect of the arm and forearm.
5 Multiple choice questions
- - these are clusters of neuronal cell bodies, as functional groups.
*Sensory Nuclei - receive input from receptors via sensory neurons.
*Motor Nuclei - provide output to effector tissues via motor neurons
- - this matter consists of bundles of myelinated axons of sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons.
- also organized into regions called columns:'
1.) Anterior(ventral) white columns
2.) Posterior (dorsal) White columns
3.) Lateral White Columns
-each column contains distinct bundles of axons having a common origin or destination, carrying similar info.
- - these are the roots of spinal nerves emerging from the lower part of the spinal cord.
- may resemble fine hairs such as "horse's tail"
- - this is the middle meninx(meninges), and is an avascular covering.
- is connective tissue that resembles a spider webs arrangement of collagen fibers and some elastic fibers.
- deep to Dura Mater.
*Subdural Space - is a space b/w dura mater and arachnoid mater, which contains interstitial fluid.
- - two grooves penetrate the white matter of the spinal cord and divide it into right and left sides.
- this is a narrow groove on the posterior (dorsal) side.
5 True/False questions
Sensory&Motor Tracts: MOTOR OUTPUT → - motor output to skeletal muscles travels down the spinal cord in two types of descending pathways:
Protective Nerve Coverings: ENDONEURIUM → - each nerve fiber sits in this loose connective tissue.
- consists of of a mesh of collagen fibers, fibroblast's, and macrophages surrounded by endoneurial fluid (extracellular fluid) derived from the capillaries.
- this fluid nourishes the neuron and provides the necessary environment for its function of propagating action potentials.
Sensory&Motor Tracts: SPINOCEREBELLAR TRACTS → - this pathway includes:
3.) Vestibulospinal Tracts
- they convey nerve impulses that govern automatic movements and help coordinate body movements w/ visual stimuli.
-also maintain skeletal muscle tone, sustain contraction of postural muscles, and play a major role in equilibrium by regulating muscle tone in response to head movement.
External Anatomy of Spinal Cord: TWO ENLARGEMENTS → - from an exterior view of the spinal cord, two enlargements can be seen:
1.) Cervical Enlargement - is the superior enlargement that extends from C4-T1. Nerves to and from the upper limbs arise from this enlargement.
2.) Lumbar Enlargement - is the inferior enlargement, extends from T9-T12. Nerves to and from the lower limbs arise from here.
Internal Anatomy of Spinal Cord: ANTERIOR(ventral) GRAY HORNS → - contain somatic motor nuclei, which are clusters of cell bodies of somatic motor neurons that provide nerve impulses for contraction of skeletal muscles.