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5 Written questions

5 Matching questions

  1. Protective Coverings of the Spine
  2. The Major Plexuses: CERVICAL PLEXUS
  3. Reflexes & Reflex Arcs: SOMATIC REFLEXES
  4. Internal Anatomy of Spinal Cord: NUCLEI
  5. Meninges: DURA MATER
  1. a - the first line of defense are the skull and vertebral column. vertebral column surrounds spinal cord providing as strong protective cases.
    - second line of defense is the Meninges, which are 3 protective membranes that lie b/w the bony encasement and nervous tissue.
    - Finally, central nervous tissue "floats" in Cerebrospinal Fluid, which cushions both the brain and spinal cord.
  2. b - this plexus is formed by the roots of the first four cervical nerves(C1-C4), there is one on each side of neck.
    - supplies the skin and muscles of the head, neck, and superior part of the shoulders and chest.
    -Phrenic nerves arise from this plexus, and supply motor fibers to diaphram.
  3. c - these reflexes involve contraction of skeletal muscles.
  4. d - these are clusters of neuronal cell bodies, as functional groups.
    *Sensory Nuclei - receive input from receptors via sensory neurons.
    *Motor Nuclei - provide output to effector tissues via motor neurons
  5. e - this is the most superficial of the 3 spinal meninges, and is composed of dense irregular connective tissue.
    - forms a sac from the level of the foramen magnum to the 2nd sacral vertebral.
    *Epidural Space - is a space b/w the dura mater and wall of the vertebral canal, filled w/ a cushion of fat and connective tissue that protects the spinal cord.

5 Multiple choice questions

  1. - contain somatic motor nuclei, which are clusters of cell bodies of somatic motor neurons that provide nerve impulses for contraction of skeletal muscles.
  2. - this nerve supplies the deltoid muscles and teres minor muscles.
  3. - the spinal nerve trunk runs for a short distance before branching into two large branches and a variable series of smaller branches, each large branch is called a??
    -this branch follows a specific course to different peripheral regions.
    -the 2 larges branches are:
    1.) Anterior (ventral) Ramus
    2.) Posterior (dorsal) Ramus
  4. - this pathway includes:
    1.) Lateral Corticospinal
    2.) Anterior Corticospinal
    3.) Corticobulbar Tracts
    - they convey nerve impulses that originate in cerebral cortex destined to cause precise, voluntary movements of skeletal muscle.
  5. - each nerve fiber sits in this loose connective tissue.
    - consists of of a mesh of collagen fibers, fibroblast's, and macrophages surrounded by endoneurial fluid (extracellular fluid) derived from the capillaries.
    - this fluid nourishes the neuron and provides the necessary environment for its function of propagating action potentials.

5 True/False questions

  1. Spine Protection: MENINGES- each column contains bundles of nerve fibers that may extend up or down the spinal cord called tracts.
    * Sensory (Ascending) Tracts - consist of axons that conduct nerve impulses from the spinal cord toward the brain.
    *Motor (Descending) Tracts - consist of axons that carry nerve impulses away from the brain down the spinal cord.
    -both tracts are continuous w/ sensory and motor tracts of the brain.


  2. External Anatomy of Spinal Cord: CAUDA EQUINA- these are clusters of neuronal cell bodies, as functional groups.
    *Sensory Nuclei - receive input from receptors via sensory neurons.
    *Motor Nuclei - provide output to effector tissues via motor neurons


  3. Sensory&Motor Tracts:- first way spinal cord promotes homeostasis is by conducting nerve impulses along tracts.
    - often, the name of a tract indicates its position.


  4. The Major Plexuses: LUMBAR PLEXUSES- the roots (anterior rami) of spinal nerves L1-L4 form this plexus.
    - there is minimal intricate intermingling of fibers in this plexus.
    -this plexus supplies the anterolateral abdominal wall, external genitals, and part of the lower limbs.
    - the Femoral & Obturator nerve arise from this plexus.
    *more info on pg 600-601


  5. Spinal Nerve Branches: RAMI COMMUNICANTES- these are components of the autonomic nervous system(ANS)