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Chapter 17 Endocrine

A & P II
STUDY
PLAY
1) Which of the following is a true statement:

a) Hormones are normally secreted via ducts into the bloodstream.

b) Hormones serve as intracellular messengers.

c) Testosterone is a gonadotropin.

d) Many effects of growth hormone are mediated by insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) secreted by the pancreas. -

e) Both the thymus and the pineal gland shrink after childhood.
e) Both the thymus and the pineal gland shrink after childhood. - T
Which of the following is a false statement:

a)Thyroid hormone has a calorigenic effect.

b) Epinephrine is said to have a glucose-sparing effect.

c) Cholesterol is essential for the synthesis of steroid hormones.

d) Peptide hormones are synthesized by cytoplasmic ribosomes as active enzymes.

e) Regardless of the cause of stress, the body reacts in a fairly consistent way to different stressors.
d) Peptide hormones are synthesized by cytoplasmic ribosomes as active enzymes. - F
3) Which of the following is a true statement:
a) The exhaustion stage of the general adaptation syndrome (stress response) sets in only if protein reserves are depleted.
b) Eicosanoids are derived from steroids.
c) Addison's disease is a consequence of a tumor of the adrenal medulla.
d) Prostaglandins are considered hormones.
e) Myxedema is characterized by low metabolic rate, sluggishness, and sleepiness.
e) Myxedema is characterized by low metabolic rate, sluggishness, and sleepiness. - T (p. 672, table)
4) Endocrine gland(s):
a) secrete substances that do not alter the metabolism of their target cells, but have extracellular effects.
b) secrete their products by way of ducts.
c) have an unusually low density of blood capillaries.
d) release their secretions directly into the blood.
e) secretions may be released onto the body surface.
d) release their secretions directly into the blood. -T
5) The nervous system reacts to stimuli _____ compared to the endocrine system, adapts _____ compared to the endocrine system, and has _____ effects compared to the endocrine system.
a) slowly; slowly; widespread
b) quickly; slowly; specific
c) quickly; quickly; widespread
d) quickly; quickly; specific
e) slowly; quickly; specific
d) quickly; quickly; specific
6) _______ are secreted by one cell into the tissue fluid, diffuse to nearby cells in the same tissue, and stimulate their physiology.

a) Neurotransmitters
b) Neuromodulators
c) Hormones
d) Parahormones
e) Paracrines
e) Paracrines
7) The ___________ is not an endocrine gland but it has a role in endocrine function.
a) kidney
b) pancreas
c) thyroid gland
d) parathyroid gland
e) adrenal gland
a) kidney
8) What makes a cell responsive to a particular hormone?
a) the chemical properties of the hormone
b) the presence of a receptor for that particular hormone
c) the location of the gland that secretes the hormone
d) the location of the target cells in the body
e) the site where the hormone is secreted
b) the presence of a receptor for that particular hormone
9) The neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary) secretes:
a) prolactin (PRL).
b) adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
c) Oxytocin (OT).
d) thyroid hormone (TH).
e) growth hormone (GH).
c) Oxytocin (OT).
10) Thyrotropin-releasing hormone targets the:
a) thyroid gland.
b) thyroid hormone.
c) hypothalamus.
d) posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis).
e) anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis).
e) anterior pitituary (adenohypophysis)
11) The hypophyseal portal system connects:

a) the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) with the hypothalamus.

b) the posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis) with the hypothalamus.

c) the anterior pituitary with the posterior pituitary.

d) the hypothalamus with its target organs.

e) the pituitary with its target organs.
a) the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) with the hypothalamus. (p640)
12) These are all hypothalamic hormones except:
a) antidiuretic hormone (ADH).
b) luteinizing hormone (LH).
c) thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH).
d) somatostatin.
e) prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH).
B) LH
13) Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) targets the
a) kidneys.
b) adrenal gland.
c) anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis).
d) hypothalamus.
e) pancreas.
a) kidneys. (p. 642)
14) ____________ has more target cells in the body than any of the others.
a) Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
b) Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)
c)Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)
d)Growth hormone (GH)
e)Oxytocin (OT)
d) Growth hormone (GH)
15) Target organs most often regulate the pituitary gland via:
a) negative feedback inhibition.
b) positive feedback inhibition.
c) up-regulation.
d) down-regulation.
e) antagonistic regulation
a) negative feedback inhibition. (p 643)
16)The infundibulum is:
a) mass of endocrine and neural cells.
b) a portal system between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland.
c) a bulky nucleus composed of the paraventricular nucleus and the supraoptic nucleus.
d) a depression of the sphenoid bone that protects the pituitary gland.
e) a projection of the hypothalamus from which the pituitary gland hangs.
e) a projection of the hypothalamus from which the pituitary gland hangs. (p 638)
17) _______ secretion is controlled by neuroendocrine reflexes, whereas ___ secretion is controlled by negative feedback mechanisms.
a) Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH); luteinizing hormone (LH)
b) Oxytocin (OT); antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
c) Antidiuretic hormone (ADH); oxytocin (OT)
d) Antidiuretic hormone (ADH); thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
e) Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH); luteinizing hormone (LH)
Ocytocin and ADH
18) Negative feedback inhibition occurs when:
a) thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) targets the anterior pituitary.
b) thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) causes the anterior pituitary to release thyroidstimulating hormone (TSH).
c) thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) targets the thyroid gland.
d) thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) targets the thyroid gland.
e) thyroid hormone (TH) targets the anterior pituitary.
e) thyroid hormone (TH) targets the anterior pituitary.
(p 643) (???)
19) This hormone plays an important role in synchronizing physiological function with the cycle of daylight and darkness.
a) calcitonin
b) melanin
c) melatonin
d) hepcidin
e) inhibin
c) melatonin (p 645)
20) The _______ secretes several hormones that stimulate the development of lymphatic organs and regulates development and activity of T cells (white blood cells).
a) thyroid
b) thymus
c) adrenal gland
d) spleen
e) parathyroid
b) thymus (p 645)
21) The ___ secretes a hormone that increases the body's metabolic rate, promotes alertness, quickens reflexes, and stimulates the fetal nervous system.
a) thyroid gland
b) pancreas
c) adrenal gland
d) parathyroid gland
e) thymus
a) thyroid gland (p 653)
22) The __________ secrete(s) a hormone as a response to hypocalcemia.
a) thymus
b) thyroid gland
c) parathyroid glands
d) pineal gland
e) pituitary gland
c) parathyroid glands (p 647)
23) The ________ secrete(s) ________, which promotes Na+ and water retention.
a) adrenal medulla; epinephrine
b) pancreas; cortisol
c) kidneys; corticosterone
d) adrenal cortex; aldosterone
e) thyroid; calcitonin
d) adrenal cortex; aldosterone (p 649)
24) The zona fasciculata in the adrenal gland secretes:
a) glucagon.
b) androgens.
c) estradiol.
d) aldosterone.
e) cortisol.
e) cortisol. (p 653)
25) Many hours after a meal, alpha (a) cells in the pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans) secrete:
a) glucagon, which lowers blood glucose.
b) glucagon, which raises blood glucose.

c) insulin, which lowers blood glucose.
d) insulin, which raises blood glucose.
e) glucocorticoids, which raise blood glucose.
b) glucagon, which raises blood glucose. (p 650)
26) These are all secreted by the pancreas except:
a) glucagon.
b) pancreatic polypeptide.
c) gastrin.
d) somatostatin (growth hormone-inhibiting hormone).
e) somatotropin (growth hormone).
e) somatotropin (growth hormone).
27) This gland has both endocrine and exocrine functions.
a) the adrenal gland
b) the salivary gland
c) the ovary
d) the pineal gland
e) the thymus
c) the ovary
28) ___ is not a steroid hormone.
a) Insulin
b) Cortisol
c) Progesterone
d) Aldosterone
e) Estradiol
a) Insulin
29) ___ is synthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum.
a) Aldosterone
b) Cortisol
c) Testosterone
d) Calcitriol
e) Glucagon
e) Glucagon
30) Absence of iodine in the diet leads to:
a) hypoparathyroidism.
b) hypothyroidism.
c) hypocalcemia.
d) hypoglycemia.
e) hypoxemia
b) hypothyroidism.
31) T4 and T3 are _____ hormones that are mainly transported _____ in the blood.
a) monoamine; bound to thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG)
b) monoamine; unbound (free)
c) steroid; bound to transcortin-binding protein (TBP)
d) steroid; unbound (free)
e) catecholamine; bound to thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG)
a) monoamine; bound to thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG)
32) ___ enters a target cell's nucleus and acts directly on the genes.
a) Insulin
b) Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
c) Estrogen
d) Glucagon
e) Oxytocin (OT)
c) Estrogen
33) This is the last step in the sequence of events happening when cyclic AMP acts as a second messenger.
a) G protein activates adenylate cyclase
b) cAMP activates protein kinases
c) adenylate cyclase produces cAMP
d) G protein is activated by the binding of a hormone to the receptor
e) enzymes are activated or deactivated by the action of protein kinases
e) enzymes are activated or deactivated by the action of protein kinases
34) Even a small quantity of hormone can have a strong effect on its target cell because of:
a) negative feedback inhibition.
b) an antagonistic effect.
c) up-regulation.
d) enzyme amplification.
e) down-regulation
d) enzyme amplification.
35) Neither follicle stimulating (FSH) hormone nor testosterone alone can stimulate significant sperm production, whereas when they act together, the testes produce some 300,000 sperm per minute. This exemplifies:
a) hormone clearance.
b) the cascade effect.
c) the synergistic effect.
d) the permissive effect.
e) the antagonistic effect.
c) the synergistic effect.
36) The resistance stage in the general adaptation syndrome (stress response) is dominated by:
a) cortisol.
b) epinephrine.
c) norepinephrine.
d) angiotensin.
e) aldosterone.
a) cortisol.
37) During the exhaustion stage of the general adaptation syndrome (stress response) stress overwhelms homeostasis. A characteristic of this stage is that:

a) glycogen supplies are depleted.
b) energy demands are met primarily by fat metabolism.
c) fermentation is not enough to provide the necessary ATP.
d) energy demands are met primarily by protein metabolism.
e) energy demands are met primarily by carbohydrate metabolism.
d) energy demands are met primarily by protein metabolism.
38. Cortisol:
a) inhibits fat digestion.
b) stimulates protein synthesis.
c) promotes glycogen synthesis.
d) stimulates glucose intake by most organs.
e) promotes breakdown of fat and protein.
e) promotes breakdown of fat and protein.
39) The initial response to stress is called ____ and is mediated mainly by ___.
a) the resistance stage; cortisol
b) the resistance stage; aldosterone and cortisol
c) the alarm reaction; norepinephrine and epinephrine
d) the alarm reaction; cortisol
e) the exhaustion stage; norepinephrine and epinephrine
c) the alarm reaction; norepinephrine and epinephrine
40) Eicosanoidsare derived from:
a) arachidonic acid.
b) leukotriene.
c) prostacyclin.
d) prostaglandins.
e) thromboxanes.
a) arachidonic acid.
41) Prostaglandins have all the following roles except:
a) to induce labor contractions.
b) to stop fever and pain.
c) to constrict or dilate arterioles.
d) to act as vasodilators or vasoconstrictors.
e) to inhibit gastric secretion.
b) to stop fever and pain.
42) Aspirin and ibuprofen block:
a) the release of arachidonic acid from the plasma membrane.
b) the action of phospholipase A1.
c) the action of phospholipase A2.
d) the action of lipoxygenase.
e) the action of cyclooxygenase.
e) the action of cyclooxygenase.
43) Diabetes insipidus is caused by:
a) epinephrine hypersecretion.
b) cortisol hypersecretion.
c) aldosterone hypersecretion.
d) antidiuretic hormone (ADH) hyposecretion.
e) antidiuretic hormone (ADH) hypersecretion.
d) antidiuretic hormone (ADH) hyposecretion.
44) All these can cause Cushing syndrome except:
a) ACTH hypersecretion by the pituitary.
b) ACTH-secreting tumors.
c) hyperactivity of the adrenal cortex.
d) hyperactivity of the adrenal medulla.
e) excess cortisol secretion.
d) hyperactivity of the adrenal medulla.
45) Growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion causes gigantism when it begins in childhood, but it is more likely to cause ___ when it begins in adulthood.
a) myxedema
b) Graves disease
c) Cushing syndrome
d) goiter
e) acromegaly
e) acromegaly
46) Diabetes mellitus is characterized by the following except:
a) hypoglycemia. d) polydipsia
b) polyuria. e) glycosuria
c) polyphagia.
a) hypoglycemia.
47) These statements about diabetes mellitus (DM) are correct except:

a) the body produces autoantibodies that destroy the pancreatic beta cells in type I DM.
b) target cells are unresponsive to insulin in type II DM.
c) both type I and type II DM are characterized by lack of, or low levels of, insulin.
d) diabetic neuropathy is a common long term effect of DM.
e) type II DM is more common than type I DM.
c) both type I and type II DM are characterized by lack of, or low levels of, insulin.
48) Which of the following is the correct sequence of events leading to polyuria and dehydration?
a) Hyperglycemia, glucose in urine raises osmolarity of tubular fluid, glucose transport maximum exceeded, glucose enters renal tubules, osmotic diuresis.
b) hyperglycemia, glucose enters renal tubules, glucose transport maximum exceeded glucose in urine raises osmolarity of tubular fluid, osmotic diuresis
c) hyperglycemia, glucose enters renal tubules, glucose in urine raises osmolarity of tubular fluid, osmotic dieresis, glucose transport maximum exceeded
d) hyperglycemia, glucose transport maximum exceeded, glucose enters renal tubules glucose in urine raises osmolarity of tubular fluid, osmotic diuresis
e) osmotic diuresis, glucose enters renal tubules, glucose transport maximum exceeded glucose in urine raises osmolarity of tubular fluid, hyperglycemia
b) hyperglycemia, glucose enters renal tubules, glucose transport maximum exceeded glucose in urine raises osmolarity of tubular fluid, osmotic diuresis
49) All of the following are true of the nervous system, except that it:

a) Produces very specific responses to environmental stimuli.
b) Functions independent of the endocrine system.
c) Communicates by the release of neurotransmitters.
d) Produces rapid changes to environmental stimuli.
e) Produces a response only as long as neural output continues.
b) Functions independent of the endocrine system.
50) Endocrine cells:
a) Release their secretions directly into body fluids.
b) Is a type of nerve cell?
c) Contain very few vesicles.
d) Release their secretions onto an epithelial surface.
e) Are modified connective-tissue cells.
a) Release their secretions directly into body fluids.
51) Hormones known as "catecholamines" are:
a) Lipids.
b) Steroids.
c) Produced by reproductive glands.
d) Derivatives of amino acids
e) Peptides
d) Derivatives of amino acids
52) Peptide hormones are:
a) Derived from the amino acid tyrosine.
b) Produced by cells in the adrenal glands.
c) Lipids.
d) Composed by amino acids.
e) Chemically related to cholesterol.
d) Composed by amino acids. (P 655)
53) All of the following are true of steroid hormones, except that they:
a) Are lipids.
b) Bind to receptors within the cell.
c) Are produced by the adrenal medulla.
d) Are produced by reproductive glands.
e) Are structurally similar to cholesterol.
c) Are produced by the adrenal medulla.
54) Each of the following hormones is an amino acid derivative, except:
a) Melatonin.
b) Norepinephrine.
c) Epinephrine.
d) Thyroid-stimulating hormone.
e) Thyroid hormone.
d) Thyroid-stimulating hormone.
55) Which of the following statements concerning peptide hormones is false?

a) Prohormones can be activated before or after their release. ??
b) Peptide hormones interact with receptors on the surface of their target cells.
c) Peptide hormones remain in circulation for relatively short periods of time.
d) Peptide hormones are first synthesized as prohormones.
e) Peptide hormones are always found in the bloodstream bound to carrier proteins.
a) Prohormones can be activated before or after their release. ??
b) Peptide hormones interact with receptors on the surface of their target cells. T
c) Peptide hormones remain in circulation for relatively short periods of time. T
d) Peptide hormones are first synthesized as prohormones. t
e) Peptide hormones are always found in the bloodstream bound to carrier proteins. F (see p660, fig17.19)
56) Steroid hormones:
a) Remain in circulation for relatively short periods of time.
b) Are transported in the blood dissolved in the plasma.
c) Bind to receptors in the nucleus of their target cells.
d) Are proteins.
e) Cannot diffuse through cell membranes.
55) Steroid hormones: (c)
c) Bind to receptors in the nucleus of their target cells. T
57) When a catecholamine or peptide hormone binds to receptors on the surface of a cell, the:

a) Second messenger appears in the cytoplasm.
b) Cell membrane becomes depolarized.
c) Hormone receptor complex moves into the cytoplasm.
d) Cell becomes inactive.
e) Hormone is transported to the nucleus where it alters the activity of DNA.
a) Second messenger appears in the cytoplasm.
58) Steroid hormones:
a) Bind to receptors on the surface of the cell.
b) Function by way of a second messenger system.
c) Cannot diffuse through the cell membrane.
d) Function by activating cAMP.
e) Bind to intracellular receptors.
e) Bind to intracellular receptors. T (cytosol or nucleus)
59) Hormones can alter cellular operations by changing all of the following, except the::
a) Quantities of enzymes in a cell.
b) Activities of enzymes in a cell.
c) Permeability of the nuclear membrane.
d) Properties of important enzymes in a cell.
e) Identities of enzymes in a cell.
c) Permeability of the nuclear membrane
60) The link between a first messenger and a second messenger in a cell that responds to peptide hormones is usually:

a)G protein.
b)cGMP.
c)Calcium
d) cAMP (p661)
e) Adenyl cyclase
d) cAMP (p661)
61) When adenyl cyclase is activated:

a) Calcium ions are released from intracellular stores.
b) cAMP is formed.
c) protein kinases are metabolized.
d) steroids are produced.
e) cAMP is broken down.
b) cAMP is formed. (p661)
62) When steroid hormones bind to their receptors:

a) protein kinases are activated.
b) cyclic nucleotides are formed.
c) gene transcription occurs.
d) adenyl cyclase is activated.
e) G proteins are inhibited.
c) gene transcription occurs.
63) The most complex endocrine responses involve the:
a) thyroid gland.
b) pancreas.
c) thymus gland
d) hypothalamus
e) adrenal glands
d) hypothalamus
64) Coordinating centers in the hypothalamus regulate the activities of the nervous and endocrine system by all of the following, except:

a) autonomic neurons that directly control the endocrine cells of the adrenal medulla.
b) secreting inhibiting hormones that inhibit the production and release of hormones from the anterior pituitary gland.
c) secreting releasing hormones that stimulate the production and release of hormones from the anterior pituitary gland.
d) a modified positive feedback loop involving the pars intermedia of the pituitary gland.
e) acting as an endocrine organ itself and releasing hormones.
d) a modified positive feedback loop involving the pars intermedia of the pituitary gland.
65) Changes in blood osmotic pressure would affect the levels of ________ in the blood.
a) Oxytocin
b) TSH
c) ACTH
d) ADH
e) LH
d) ADH
66) Hormones that control the function of the anterior pituitary gland are released from the ________ of the hypothalamus:

a) median eminence
b) infundibulum
c) supraoptic nuclei
d) paraventricular nuclei
e)geniculate bodies
a) median eminence
67) The hypothalamus controls secretions of the anterior pituitary by way of:

a) gap junctions.
b) altering ion concentrations in the anterior pituitary.
c) releasing and inhibiting hormones.
d) direct neural stimulation.
e) direct mechanical control.
c) releasing and inhibiting hormones.
68) Neurons of the supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus manufacture:
a) FSH.
b) Oxytocin.
c) growth hormone.
d) ADH
e) TSH
d) ADH
69) Neurons of the paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus manufacture:
a) ADH.
b) TSH.
c) GH
d) Oxytocin
e) FSH
d) Oxytocin
70) The posterior pituitary gland secretes:
a) ACTH.
b) TSH.
c) FSH
d) MSH
e) ADH
e) ADH
71) The hormone produced by the pars intermedia of the adenohypophysis is :
a) ACTH.
b) FSH.
c) MSH.
d) ADH
e) TSH
c) MSH
72) Each of the following hormones is produced by the pars distalis of the adenohypophysis, except:
a) GH.
b) ADH.
c) TSH.
d) ACTH
e) FSH
b) ADH.
73) The hormone Oxytocin:
a) governs the ovarian cycle.
b) is responsible for milk production in the mammary glands.
c) regulates blood pressure.
d) governs the levels of tissue androgens.
e) promotes uterine contractions.
e) promotes uterine contractions.
74) Growth hormone does all of the following, except that it:
a) promotes neuron growth and development.
b) is glucose sparing.
c) promotes muscle growth.
d) promotes bone growth.
e) promotes amino acid uptake by cells.
b) is glucose sparing.
75) Liver cells respond to growth hormone by releasing hormones called:
a) glucocorticoids.
b) hepatic hormones.
c) somatomedins.
d) prostaglandins
e) gonadotropins
c) somatomedins.
76) The pituitary hormone that triggers the release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland is:
a) TSH.
b) ACTH.
c) FSH.
d) LH
e) GH
a) TSH.
77) The pituitary hormone that controls the release of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex is:
a) TSH
b) ACTH.
c) FSH.
d) LH
e) GH
b) ACTH.
78) The pituitary hormone that promotes egg development in ovaries and sperm development in testes is:
a) TSH.
b) ACTH
c) FSH.
d) LH
e) GH
c) FSH.
79) The pituitary hormone that promotes ovarian secretion of progesterone & testicular secretion of testosterone is
a) TSH.
b) ACTH.
c) FSH.
d) LH
e) GH
d) LH
80) The pituitary hormone that stimulates milk production by the mammary glands is:
a) Prolactin.
b) growth hormone.
c) TSH
d) ACTH
e) FSH
a) Prolactin.
81) The pituitary hormone that stimulates cell growth and replication by accelerating protein synthesis is:
a) insulin.
b) Prolactin.
c) ACTH
d) somatotropin
e) MSH
d) somatotropin
82) The pituitary hormone that stimulates melanocytes to produce melanin is:
a) MSH.
b) STH.
c) ADH.
d) FSH
e) TSH
a) MSH.
83) The effects of thyroid hormone on peripheral tissue include:
a) increased activity of osteoclasts.
b) decreased nutrient requirements.
c) decreased heart rate.
d) decreased oxygen consumption.
e) increased sensitivity to sympathetic stimulation.
e) increased sensitivity to sympathetic stimulation (p646)
84) Thyroid hormone contains the mineral:

a) sodium.
b) potassium.
c) zinc.
d) iron
e) iodine
e) iodine
85) Thyroid hormone does not readily diffuse out of the thyroid follicles because:
a) it is bound to thyroid-binding globulin.
b) it is in a colloidal state.
c) molecules with iodine cannot diffuse.
d) it cannot freely move past the cell membrane.
e) it must be actively transported by the sodium pump.
e) it must be actively transported by the sodium pump
86) The hormone that plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of body temperature is:
a) somatotropin.
b) thormone.
c) thyroxine.
d) calcitonin
e) glucagon
c) thyroxine.
87) A hormone that can lower blood levels of calcium ion is:
a) thyroxine.
b) parathyroid hormone.
c) calcitonin
d) Oxytocin
e) glucagon
c) calcitonin
88) The condition known as goiter can result from too:
a) little glucagon.
b) much insulin.
c) much TSH.
d) much ACTH
e) much iodine in the diet
.
c) much TSH.
89) The C cells of the thyroid gland produce:
a) TSH.
b) parathormone.
c) thyroxine.
d) triiodothyronine
e) calcitonin
e) calcitonin
90) Increased levels of the hormone ________ will lead to increased levels of calcium ions in the blood.
a) Calcitonin
b) Thymosin
c) cortisol
d) aldosterone
e) parathormone
e) parathormone
91) The hormone that is the antagonist of calcitonin is:
a) thyroid hormone.
b) insulin.
c) glucagon.
d) growth hormone
e) parathyroid hormone
e) parathyroid hormone
92) Angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II by converting enzymes in the:
a) heart.
b) kidneys.
c) pancreas
d) liver
e) lungs
b) kidneys. (652)
93) The enzyme renin is responsible for the activation of:
a) adrenaline.
b) atrial natriuretic peptide.
c) cortisol.
d) erythropoietin.
e) angiotensin
e) angiotensin
94) The chief cells of the parathyroid glands produce a hormone that:
a) increases the level of sodium ions in the blood.
b) stimulates the formation of white blood cells.
c) increases the level of glucose in the blood.
d) increases the level of potassium ions in the blood.
e) increases the level of calcium ions in the blood.
e) increases the level of calcium ions in the blood.
95) The zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex produces:
a) Norepinephrine
b) epinephrine.
c) glucocorticoids
d) mineralocorticoids
e) androgens
e) androgens
96) The zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex produces:
a) Epinephrine
b) glucocorticoids.
c) mineralocorticoids
d) androgens
e) norepinephrine
b) glucocorticoids.
97) The zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex produces:
a) norepinephrine.
b) glucocorticoids.
c) mineralocorticoids.
d) epinephrine
e) androgens
c) mineralocorticoids.
98) The adrenal medulla produces:
a) corticosteroids.
b) mineralocorticoids.
c) catecholamines.
d) androgens
e) glucocorticoids
c) catecholamines.
99) A hormone that promotes the conversion of lipids to glucose and the formation of glycogen in the liver is:
a) Aldosterone (Na+ retention)
b) cortisol.
c) parathormone (raises blood Ca+)
d) erythropoietin (RBC production)
e) thymosin (immune/lymphocyte)
b) cortisol.
100) A hormone that helps to regulate the sodium ion concentration of the blood is:
a) Cortisol (fat/protein catabolism)
b) Parathormone (raises blood Ca+)
c) thymosin (immune/lymphocyte)
d) aldosterone
e) somatotropin (inhibits GH)
d) aldosterone
101) The pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar levels to fall is:
a) Cortisol
b) aldosterone.
c) somatotropin
d) glucagon
e) insulin
e) insulin
102) Hyposecretion of cortisol can cause:
a) Cushing's disease
b) Addison's disease.
c) goitre.
d) diabetes insipidus
e) diabetes mellitus
b) Addison's disease.
101) A hormone that is synergistic to growth hormone is:
a) cortisol.
b) renin.
c) calcitonin.
d) aldosterone
e) insulin
a) cortisol.
104) Pinealocytes produce:
a) melanin.
b) LH.
c) MSH
d) FSH
e) melatonin
a) melanin.
105) When blood glucose levels rise:
a) peripheral cells take up less glucose.
b) peripheral cells begin storing glucose as glycogen.
c) insulin is released.
d) glucagon is released.
e) protein synthesis decreases.
c) insulin is released.
106) When blood glucose levels fall:
a) insulin is released.
b) peripheral cells take up less glucose.
c) protein synthesis decreases.
d) glucagon is released.
e) both B and C
d) glucagon is released.
107) Cells of the adrenal cortex produce:

a) ACTH.
b) epinephrine.
c) insulin.
d) aldosterone
e) norepinephrine
d) aldosterone
108) The alpha cells of the pancreas produce:

a) digestives enzymes.
b) insulin
c) glucagon.
d) cortisol
e) renin
c) glucagon.
109) The beta cells of the pancreas produce:
a) cortisol.
b) digestives enzymes.
c) glucagon.
d) Insulin
e) renin
d) Insulin
110) The __ lies within the abdominopelvic cavity near the border between the stomach & small intestine.

a) thymus gland
b) adrenal gland
c) pancreas
d) testis
e) thyroid gland
c) pancreas
111) The exocrine portion of the pancreas produces:
a) digestive enzymes d) somatotropin
b) bile. e) insulin
c) glucagon.
a) digestive enzymes
112) The pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans):
a) produce digestive enzymes.
b) secrete alkaline juice.
c) produce zymogenic enzyme.
d) make up most of the pancreas.
e) contain endocrine cells.
e) contain endocrine cells.
113) The pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar levels to rise is:
a) somatotropin.
b) glucagon.
c) erythropoietin.
d) cortisol
e) insulin
b) glucagon
114) Inability of the pancreas to produce insulin would result in:
a) goiter.
b) diabetes insipidus.
c) Addison's disease.
d) diabetes mellitus
e) acromegaly
d) diabetes mellitus
115) The interstitial cells of the testes produce:
a) FSH. d) estrogen
b) testosterone. e) progesterone
c) estrogen.
b) testosterone
116) Follicle cells in the ovary produce large quantities of ________ when stimulated by FSH:
a) Gonadotropins d) inhibin
b) Progesterone e) estrogen
c) Testosterone
d) inhibin
117) A structure known as the corpus luteum secretes:
a) cortisone. d) progesterone
b) testosterone. e) aldosterone
c) androstenedione
d) progesterone
118) Each of the following statements concerning the hormone atrial natriuretic peptide is true, except one. Identify the exception:

a) Atrial natriuretic peptide suppresses ADH secretion.
b) Atrial natriuretic peptide promotes sodium loss at the kidneys.
c) Atrial natriuretic peptide is produced by cells in the heart.
d) Atrial natriuretic peptide reduces the sensation of thirst.
e) Atrial natriuretic peptide increases aldosterone secretion.
E)Atrial natriuretic peptide increases aldosterone secretion.
119) The hormone that causes a decrease in FSH levels in both males and females is:
a) LH. d) testosterone
b) inhibin. e) somatostatin
c) aldosterone.
b) inhibin.
120) The hormone that is important for maintenance of the immune system is:
a) thymosin. d) somatotropin
b) cortisol. e) thyroxine
c) aldosterone.
a) thymosin.
121) Increased numbers of red blood cells would result from increases in the hormone:
a) cortisol. d) atrial natriuretic peptide
b) thymosin. e) erythropoietin
c) aldosterone.
e) erythropoietin
122) Proper growth requires:
a) gonadal hormones. d) all of the above
b) insulin. e) A and C only
c) thyroid hormone
d) all of the above
123) Increased aggressive behavior is associated with increases in:
a) thyroxine. d) somatostatin
b) estrogens. e) progesterone
c) testosterone.
c) testosterone.
124) Excess secretion of growth hormone prior to puberty will cause:
a) midgets. d) dwarfism
b) gigantism. e) diabetes
c) acromegaly.
b) gigantism
125) The hormone that dominates during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) is:
a) testosterone. d) cortisol
b) epinephrine. e) thyroid hormone
c) aldosterone.
b) epinephrine
126) During the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) there is:

a) decreased rate of respiration.
b) decreased mental alertness.
c) mobilization of energy reserves.
d) increased urine production
e) decreased blood flow to skeletal muscles and skin
c) mobilization of energy reserves
127) If stress lasts longer than a few hours, an individual will enter the ________ phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS):
a) alarm
b) resistance
c) extension
d) prolonged
e) exhaustion
b) resistance
128) Hormones that dominate during the resistance phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) are the:

a) mineralocorticoids.
b) glucocorticoids.
c) androgens.
d) gonadotropins
e) catecholamines
b) glucocorticoids
129) During the resistance phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS):
a) proteins are conserved.
b) lipid reserves are mobilized.
c) levels of insulin decrease.
d) levels of growth hormone decrease
e) blood glucose levels fall drastically
b) lipid reserves are mobilized.
130) The exhaustion phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) is characterized by:

a) increased pumping effectiveness of the heart.
b) decreased resistance to disease and infection.
c) increased ability to produce glucose from glycogen.
d) all of the above
e) B and C only
b) decreased resistance to disease and infection.
131) Cholecalciferol is synthesized by the:

a) epidermis of the integumentary system.
b) splenic pulp of the lymphatic system.
c) hypothalamus of the nervous system.
d) bone marrow of the skeletal system.
e) endometrial linings of the cardiovascular system.
a) epidermis of the integumentary system
132) Gap junctions:
a) facilitate the propagation of action potentials from one neuron to the next at electrical synapses.
b) coordinate ciliary movement among epithelial cells.
c) coordinate the contractions of cardiac muscle cells.
d) both A and C
e) all of the above
e) all of the above
133) ________ are chemical messengers that are released in one tissue and transported in the bloodstream to alter the activities of specific cells in other tissues:
a) Humoral antibodies
b) Neuropeptides
c) Neurotransmitters
d) Hormones
e) none of the above
d) Hormones
134) A hormone may: ?????

a) turn an existing enzyme on or off by changing its shape and structure.

b) increase or decrease the rate of synthesis of a particular enzyme or other protein by changing the rate of transcription or translation.

c) stimulate the synthesis of an enzyme or structural protein not already present in the cytoplasm by activating appropriate genes in the cell nucleus.

d) all of the above

e) none of the above
D. all of the above
135) Cells can respond to ________ hormone(s) at the same time:

a) two
b) three
c) several
d) zero
e) only one
c) several
136) Norepinephrine and epinephrine are called ________ when released into the bloodstream, but ________ when released across synapses.
a) neurotransmitters; hormones
b) neuropeptides; neurotransmitters
c) hormones; neurotransmitters
d) neurotransmitters; neuropeptides
e) none of the above
c) hormones; neurotransmitters
137) The kidneys are responsible for the secretion of:

a) calcitriol. d) both B and C
b) erythropoietin. e) all of the above
c) renin.
e) all of the above
138) The heart is known to secrete all of the following hormones, except:

a) ANP. d) renin
b) BNP. cc) thyroxine.
e) both C and D
139) Thyroxine and calcitonin are secreted from the:
a) kidneys.
b) pituitary gland.
c) thyroid gland.
d) gonads
e) heart
c) thyroid gland.
140) Melatonin is produced by the:
a) thymus. d) kidneys
b) pineal gland. e) skin
c) heart.
b) pineal gland.
141) A kinase is an enzyme that performs:

a) diffusion.
b) phosphorylation.
c) a rebound effect.
d) both A and B
e) both A and C
b) phosphorylation
142) An activated G protein can trigger:

a) the opening of calcium ion channels in the membrane.
b) the retention of calcium.
c) the release of calcium ions from intracellular stores.
d) the production of DAG.
e) All of the above
e) All of the above
143) Calcium ions serve as messengers, generally in combination with an intracellular protein known as:
a) TSH. d) calmodulin
b) ADH. e) adrenocorticotropin
c) calcitonin.
d) calmodulin
144) Hormones coordinate ________ activities on a regular basis:
a) Organ d) all of the above
b) Tissue e) none of the above
c) Cell
d) all of the above
145) The hypothalamus acts as a (n) ________ organ:
a) Renal d) cardiovascular
b) Hepatic e) muscular
c) Endocrine
c) Endocrine
1) A simple endocrine reflex involves ________ hormone(s).
a) more than 15
b) few
c) five
d) one
e) none of the above
d) one
147) The body's response to rising insulin levels in a healthy individual is increased production of glucose. This mechanism is known as ________ feedback:
a) positive
b) good
c) negative
d) neutral
e) none of the above
c) negative
148) Prolactin is to ________ as ACTH is to ________.
a) Oxytocin; corticotropin
b) Oxytocin; mammotropin
c) mammotropin; corticotropin
d) gonadotropin; mammotropin
e) none of the above
c) mammotropin; corticotropin
149) You are volunteering in an outpatient pediatric clinic. You hear the doctor inform a mother and her 5-year-old son about a problem with his growth hormone. From A&P class, you quickly recognize that the technical term for growth hormone is:

a) gonadotropin.
b) luteinizing hormone.
c) melanotropin.
d) adrenocorticotropin.
e) somatotropin.
e) somatotropin.
150) Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) is secreted by the human pars intermedia:
a) in some disease processes.
b) during pregnancy.
c) during fetal development.
d) in very young children
e) all of the above
e) all of the above
151) The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland produces ________ hormones:
a) 2 d) 10
b) 5 e) 15
c) 7
c) 7, I have a problem with this it is actually 8 hormones in the pituitary gland, 6 in anterior and 2 in posterior?
152) You are with your friend in the hospital who is about to give birth. Because the contractions are not progressing as expected, the physician decides to order something to help promote uterine wall contractions. You know that she is ordering:

a) Prolactin.
b) Oxytocin.
c) extra fluids.
d) luteinizing hormone
e) both A & C
b) Oxytocin.
153) TSH plays a key role in the ________ of thyroid hormones:

a) Inhibition
b) Synthesis
c) Release
d) both A and B
e) both B and C
e) both B and C
154) The control of calcitonin excretion is an example of direct ________ regulation:
a) Homeostatic
b) Pancreatic
c) Hepatic
d) vascular
e) endocrine
e) endocrine
155) Parathyroid hormone does all of the following, except that it:

a) stimulates the formation and secretion of calcitriol at the kidneys.

b) increases urinary losses.

c) enhances the reabsorption of calcium at the kidneys.

d) inhibits osteoblast activity.

e) stimulates osteoclast activity.
b) increases urinary losses.
156) According to standards, a normal blood glucose level averages:
a) 40-70 mg/dL.
b) 60-100 mg/dL.
c) 70-120 mg/dL.
d) 100-180 mg/dL
e) 110-190 mg/dL
c) 70-120 mg/dL
157) In general, the effects of natriuretic peptides ________ those of angiotensin II:
a) Propose
b) Increase
c) oppose
d) stabilize
e) both B and C
c) oppose
158) Your overweight, 60-year-old grandmother complains of being thirsty all the time, always having to urinate, and feeling very dehydrated. You recognize that not only is she exhibiting the symptoms of diabetes, but she may also have a deficiency of the hormone: (d)
a) LH.
b) estrogen.
c) ACT.
d) ADH
e) FSH
d) ADH
159) Cushing's disease manifests itself due to an overproduction of:
a) glucocorticoids.
b) parathyroid hormone.
c) epinephrine.
d) ADH
e) growth hormone
a) glucocorticoids
160) The term used to describe the presence of glucose in the urine is:
a) polydipsia.
b) glycosuria.
c) polyuria.
d) hematuria
e) none of the above
b) glycosuria
161) A substance with effects outside its tissue of origin is called a ________ if its chemical structure is known and a ________ if that structure remains to be determined:
a) peptide; steroid
b) neurotransmitter; hormone
c) hormone; factor
d) peptide; lipid
e) factor; hormone
c) hormone; factor
162) The primary function of ADH is to:
a) increase absorption along the digestive tract.
b) increase the amount of water lost at the kidneys.
c) decrease the amount of water lost at the kidneys.
d) prevent urination.
e) dilate peripheral blood vessels to decrease blood pressure
c) decrease the amount of water lost at the kidneys.
163) Reduced fluid losses in urine due to the retention of Na+ and water is the result of the action of:
a) Oxytocin.
b) calcitonin.
c) aldosterone.
d) cortisone
e) ADH
c) aldosterone.
164) The adrenal medulla produces the hormones:
a) cortisol and cortisone.
b) corticosterone and testosterone.
c) epinephrine and norepinephrine.
d) androgens and progesterone
e) cortisol and epinephrine
c) epinephrine and norepinephrine
165) The adenyl cyclase activity of a group of liver cells is inhibited. This would interfere with the ability of ________ to stimulate the cells: (
a) Insulin
b) Glucagon
c) Cortisol
d) testosterone
e) thyroxine
b) Glucagon
166) Increased levels of phosphodiesterase in target cells would decrease the activity of: (
a) progesterone.
b) FSH.
c) thyroid hormone.
d) estrogen
e) testosterone
b) FSH
167) Damage to the supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus would affect which of the following hormones?
a) FSH
b) Insulin
c) LH
d) oxytocin
e) ADH
e) ADH
168) Transection of the infundibulum would result in a loss of which of the following hormone(s)?
a) ADH
b) TSH
c) growth hormone
d) FSH
e) both B and C
a) ADH
169) Diabetes insipidus is caused by decreased levels of which of the following hormones?
a) Insulin
b) insulin receptors
c) glucagon
d) ADH receptors
e) ADH
a) Insulin
170) If the median eminence of the hypothalamus is destroyed, the hypothalamus would no longer be able to control the secretion of which of the following hormones?
a) Oxytocin
b) thyroid hormone
c) ADH
d) epinephrine
e) insulin
b) thyroid hormone
171) Decreased levels of parathormone could result in:
a) convulsions.
b) increased sweating.
c) profuse urination.
d) all of the above
e) both B and C
A) convulsions (due to lack of calcium)
172) Damage to cells of the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex would result in:
a) decreased ability to convert lipids to glucose.
b) increased water retention.
c) increased volume of urine formation.
d) decreased levels of sodium ion in the blood.
e) the disappearance of axillary and pubic hair.
a) decreased ability to convert lipids to glucose
173) A rise in cortisol would cause an increase in each of the following, except the:
a) rate of glucose synthesis by the liver.
b) fatty acid metabolism by muscle cells.
c) level of fatty acids in the blood.
d) ACTH levels.
e) rate of glycogen formation by the liver
d) ACTH levels
174) A rise in angiotensin II levels would result in all of the following, except:
a) increased retention of sodium ions at the kidney.
b) increased urine production.
c) increased blood volume.
d) elevated blood pressure.
e) increased water retention.
b) increased urine production.
175) Decreased blood flow to the kidneys would lead to all of the following, except:
a) increased levels of atrial natriuretic peptide
b) increased levels of erythropoietin.
c) elevated levels of aldosterone.
d) all of the above
e) B and C only
a) increased levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (heart)
176) What effect would a large increase in cortisol have on insulin secretion?
a) Insulin secretion would remain unchanged.
b) Insulin secretion would increase.
c) Insulin secretion would decrease.
b) insulin secretion would increase
177) Which of the following symptoms would you not expect to observe in a person suffering from type I diabetes mellitus?
a) Glycosuria
b) Ketoacidosis
c) increased thirst
d) decreased appetite
e) hyperglycemia
e) hyperglycemia
178) Exposure to more hours of daylight than normal would result in:
a) increased levels of melatonin.
b) increased activity of the pineal gland.
c) decreased levels of MSH in the blood.
d) increased levels of melanin production.
e) both B and C
e) both B and C
179) The condition known as seasonal affective disorder (SAD) may be caused by:
a) exposure to too much sunlight.
b) an inability to produce sufficient amounts of melanin.
c) increased levels of gonadotrophins.
d) increased levels of MSH.
e) increased levels of melatonin
e) increased levels of melatonin
180) Shelly has a benign tumor of the adrenal gland. The tumor is causing hypersecretion of a hormone that causes her to grow a beard and have extensive body hair. This tumor involves cells of the:
a) zona glomerulosa.
b) zona reticularis.
c) zona fasciculata.
d) pars intermedia
e) adrenal medulla
b) zona reticularis
181) If a person took a drug that inhibited the conversion of T4 to T3, what physiological changes would you expect to observe?
a) increased thyroxine secretion
b) decreased levels of TSH
c) increased body temperature
d) normal levels of metabolism
e) both A and D
e) both A and D
182) Addison's disease is the result of inadequate secretion of both glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids by the adrenal gland. What symptoms would you expect to observe in a person suffering from this disease?

a) hypoglycemia
b) normal levels of the sodium and potassium ions
c) decreased levels of ACTH
d) increased levels of growth hormone
e) water retention
c) decreased levels of ACTH
183) Pheochromocytomas are tumors of the adrenal medulla that cause hypersecretion of the catecholamines produced by this region of the adrenal gland. What symptom would you not associate with a person who suffers from this condition?
a) constricted pupils
b) elevated metabolic rate
c) nervousness
d) sweating
e) hypertension
a) constricted pupils
184) Annette has her thyroid gland removed because of a malignant tumor. She takes synthetic thyroid hormone to replace the thyroxine that her thyroid gland would have produced, but she is worried about her blood calcium since she has lost her source of calcitonin. Does she need to worry about this problem?

a) No, the synthetic thyroid hormone will also control the calcium.

b) Yes, without the calcitonin, high blood levels of calcium will cause convulsions.

c) Yes, without the calcitonin she will suffer heart failure.

d) No, hormones from the liver and kidneys will regulate calcium through the intestinal tract.

e) No, as long as she still has functional parathyroid glands she will maintain proper levels of calcium.
e) No, as long as she still has functional parathyroid glands she will maintain proper levels of calcium.
185) Joe is 50 years old and has a pituitary tumor that produces excess amounts of growth hormone. Which of the following symptoms would you expect to observe as a result of this condition?
a) decreased levels of somatomedins in the blood
b) high blood levels of amino acids
c) hyperglycemia
d) decreased urine output
e) decreased triglyceride levels
b) high blood levels of amino acids
186) Both insulin and glucagon are peptide hormones that target liver cells. The response of the target cells to each of these two hormones are exactly the opposite of each other. This information implies that:

a) both hormones interact with receptors at the cell nucleus.
b) the two hormones bind to different cell surface receptors.
c) one hormone binds to a receptor on the cell membrane and the other to an intracellular receptor.
d) each of the two hormones uses a different second messenger.
e) one of the hormones does not interact with a membrane receptor.
d) each of the two hormones uses a different second messenger.
187) When one hormone is needed for a second hormone to produce an effect, it is called_______
a) Permissive
b) Primary
c) Secondary
d) Essential
e) Association
a) Permissive
188) Adipose tissue is known to produce the peptide hormones ____(leptin) and:

a) Leptin, resistin
b) Epinepfrin, norepinephrin
c) ACTH, MSH
a) Leptin, resistin
189) Aldosterone secretion occurs in response to an increase in sodium content of the blood, total blood volume, and blood pressure.
a) True
b) False
b) False
190) Aldosterone release occurs in response to angiotensin II.
a) True
b) false
a) True
191) The hormone LH stimulates ovarian cells to produce the hormone progesterone by way of a second messenger system. When an antagonist is used to activate adenyl cyclase in the target cells, the level of progesterone produced is not as great as when LH stimulates the cells. It has also been observed that the intracellular levels of free calcium increase when the cells are stimulated by LH. What does this information imply about the mode of action of LH?
It would appear that LH functions by activating two or more second messenger systems. The data presented here implies that the LH not only brings about the activation of cAMP but also uses calcium ions as a second messenger. This would account for the decreased production of progesterone when only the cAMP system is activated. Current research indicates that LH activates both cAMP and a second messenger known as phosphatidylinositol, which causes the release of calcium from intracellular stores
192) Carl is suffering from hypothyroidism (his thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone). How could his physician determine if the problem is due to problems at the level of the hypothalamus and pituitary or at the level of the gland itself?
The physician could order blood tests to determine the levels of TSH, T3, and T4 in the blood. If the condition is due to disease of the thyroid gland, you would expect to see elevated levels of TSH because of a lack of feedback inhibition by thyroid hormones. If, on the other hand, the problem is due to problems at the level of the hypothalamus or pituitary, you would expect to see decreased levels of TSH.
193) Patients receiving steroid hormone frequently retain large amounts of water. Why?
All steroid hormones are quite similar in structure. When there is an excess of one steroid, some is converted to another form, commonly a form similar to aldosterone. Increased levels of aldosterone lead to the retention of sodium and water and can produce bloating, as in patients receiving steroid therapy.