43 terms

Family Communications Ch 7 and 8 Test

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dual earner couples
both employed partners work at positions that do not offer a career ladder

sometimes this means it is a job they do not want
dual career couples
partnerships in which each person pursues a full time career and expects to advance up the career ladder
McMaster model of role functions
1) providing adult sexual fulfillment and children's gender socialization
2) providing nurturing and emotional support
3) providing for individual development
4) providing for kinship maintenance and family management
5) providing basic resources
instrumental vs affective
instrumental: providing the resources for the family

affective: support and nurturing, adult sexual needs

mixed: life skill development and system upkeep
providing adult sexual fulfillment and children's gender socialization
affective

learning things like... what does it mean to be boy, what does it mean to be a girl

the toys your parents buy you; or the responsibilities you have, or rules (like curfews); or chores you have to do
providing nurturing and emotional support
affective

socialized by your parents and community through... advice, directives (this is what you should do or not do..) — anyone that answers your questions or has expectations of you and how you should/n't be doing things

women are still doing more things in the house and things with the children — men spend about 1/3 the time mothers do with their children. but many times single dads spend a lot more time with their kids than the dad that is in the home with them (they have to be there for the kid)

role confusion can also be developed if the family is rigid

girls prefer their fathers to have a buddy role; sons prefer their fathers to have better communication
providing for individual development
both instrumental and affective

the need to feel unique, but also to have commonality with other people — if they do not have this, they are set up for an enmeshed or dependent relationship

need to be encouraged to make individual choices and participate in decision making
providing for kinship maintenance and family management
both instrumental and affective

the person most likely to maintain relationships with extended family — women are more likely to maintain communication with extended family members

when people get married, the men usually communicate closer with their wife's family than they used to with their family

cultural differences — men who are puerto rican tend to communicate with their parents at the same level as most women of other races

cohesion is very influential in how much communication is maintained as relationships develop and branch out
providing basic resources
instrumental

dual career couple vs a dual earner couple — dual career = both have full time careers; dual earner couples = not necessarily pursing a career they are interested but have to work in order to make money for the family, usually for economic reasons

single dads tend to get more support and help from friends and family members than single moms do
role appropriation process
role expectations
role enactment
role negotiation
role expectations
how each person is in relationship, Puerto Rican men believe women should be stay at home moms

can cause conflict if not examined before marriage
role enactment
how role is carried out behaviorally
influence of complementary and opposing roles on role performance
if two complementary family members perceive things in similar ways, it enhances role performance
role negotiation
managing conflict

different experiences you go through during your lifetime

an ongoing role coordination

example: becoming a stepmother and having to change your role and everyone else also changes their roles
Hochschild's term in regards to role negotiation
"the second shift"

suggests that married women often work at taking care of the house and children after putting in a full day's work on the job
Fitzpatrick's couple types
1) traditionals - uphold a fairly conventional belief system and resist change or uncertainty; high degree of interdependence and low autonomy; will engage in conflict but would rather avoid it; demonstrate strong sex-typed roles and oppose an androgynous orientation

2) separates - greater conflict avoidance, more differentiated space needs, fairly regular schedules, and less sharing; maintain a distance from people and experience little sense of togetherness or autonomy; oppose an androgynous sexual orientation and tend to avoid conflict

3) independents - accept uncertainty and change, represent the most autonomous of the types but do considerable sharing and negotiate autonomy; more likely to conflict and to support an androgynous, flexible sex role
Fitzpatrick's six mixed couple types
the husband is designated by the first term

1) traditional/separate

2) separate/traditional - have a low consensus on a number of relational issues, but were moderately cohesive. claimed high satisfaction for their relationship and outwardly expressed much affection

3) independent/separate

4) separate/independent

5) traditional/independent

6) independent/traditional
characteristics of maintaining couple relationships according to Fitzpatrick
1) conflict avoidance
2) assertiveness
3) sharing
4) ideology of traditionalism
5) ideology of uncertainty and change
6) temporal (time) regularity
7) undifferentiated space
8) autonomy

all 8 factors affect role enactment
Fitzpatrick -- most satisfied couples
1) traditional
2) traditional/separate
3) independents
4) separates
gender organized couple types
1) post gender: couples that have made a conscious effort to move past gender as a way to organize the relationship and tasks associated with it -- equal responsibilities in child rearing is an example

2) gender legacy: couples that do not overtly recognize gender as their division of labor, but use it by default -- the wife may be seen as being more in tune to the child's needs than the father even though they do kind of equal work

3) traditional: couples that use gender as a conscious method of dividing labor in the relationship and see their roles, though different, as equal
Gottman
the leading marital researcher who developed a well known couple typology based on conflict styles
dimensions of family communication patters
conformity orientation
conversation orientation
conformity orientation
high: family expresses similar values and attitudes; enhances harmony

low: family expresses more varied values, attitudes and patterns of interaction; upholds individuality and brings out the unique personalities of family members
conversation orientation
high: open family systems so that individuals can speak their minds easily on a whole range of conflict issues with little fear

low: members speak out less frequently on fewer conflict issues
Fitzpatrick and Ritchie's family typologies
1) consensual - high in both conversation and conformity strategies with their communication characterized by pressure for agreement, although children are encouraged to express ideas and feelings

2) pluralistic - high in conversation orientation and low in conformity; have open communication and emotional supportiveness

3) protective - low on the use of conversational approach and high on conformity; stress upholding family rules and avoiding conflict

4) laissez-faire - low on both conformity and conversational dimensions; interact very little, children may look outside the family for influence and support
power bases
1) normative resources: the family's values and the cultural or societal expectations of where authority lies

2) economic resources: the monetary control exerted by family members as persons designed to make financial decisions

3) affective resources: reflects involvement, commitment, nurturing, and the power to give or withhold affection

4) personal resources: a family member's individual characteristics such as personality, physical appearance, and role competence

5) cognitive resources: perceptions of power that family members have to influence their own and others actions and affect others; utilizing the power in ways others cannot in different situations, being able to act differently in different situations
power processes
how power is used in family interactions
power outcomes
focuses on who makes decisions and is able to influence others in the family

power bases influence power outcomes (normative yields the most power)
married couples power types
1) one spouse dominant: major areas of activity are influenced and controlled by the dominant spouse - in all areas of family power - one spouse orchestrates and implements power

2) syncratic: much shared authority and joint decision making - each partner has a strong say in all important areas - both partners may confer and make decisions together - both having input and shared power

3) autonomic: the couple divides the authority (have relatively equal authority but in different areas) - each spouse is completely responsible for specific matters
power and children
children influence the interaction and outcomes of power struggles by using power plays such as interruptions or screaming

children in stepfamilies can lie and persuade parents that they had different rules in the different houses

children can increase their power by forming an alliance with one of their parents

children tend to develop more independent power as they grow older; power changes as the family changes
power communication strategies
1) confirming: implies acknowledgement and may be used to gain power when one tries to get another to identify with him or her, or when one tries to give rewards in order to gain control

2) disconfirming: such as the silent treatment

3) rejecting: tie directly to punishment messages and are often used as control in family power plays; such as "I hate you"
types of influence strategies
1) unilateral influence strategy: more of doing your own thing or withdrawal kind of approach; if one person isn't as confident or secure in the relationship will be more likely to use this strategy

2) bilateral influence strategy: if there is a not of nurturance in the relationship this is more likely; contains more positive interactions

3) direct influence strategy: includes bargaining, reasoning, and asking

4) indirect influence strategy: includes hinting and withdrawal
interpersonal influence strategies
1) direct requests: asking for what you want
2) bargaining: offering to do something in exchange
3) aversive stimulation: complaining, crying, etc
4) ingratiation: doing something good
5) hinting: indirect communication
6) moral appeal: suggesting what good people do
7) manipulation: guilt, shame, etc
8) withdrawal: silence, avoidance, etc
9) deception: exaggeration or lies
10) distributive communication: bullying, etc
11) threats: attempt to intimidate the other person
influence strategy trends
• men tend to use more direct strategies than women
both use direct strategies when they feel more marital satisfaction/commitment

• children tend to be direct and just ask for things; they have yet to learn more indirect strategies

• moms tend to utilize praise and encouragement to influence children

• moms tend to believe or see that it is more effective when they show moderate or little control

• dads tend to show moderate to a high level of control with children
influence strategies relating to health
1) engaging in health behavior together
2) discussing the health issue
3) requesting that the partner engage in health behavior
4) engaging in facilitative behavior
types of decision making processes
1) consensus: involves discussion that continues util agreement is reached; may require more compromise and flexibility

2) accommodation: when some family members consent to a decision not because they totally agree but because they believe that further discussion may be unproductive

3) de facto decisions: one made without direct family approval but made to keep the family functioning - more passive
phases in decision making
problem solving loop

1) identification of problem
2) restatement or formulation of goal
3) assessment of resources
4) generation of alternatives
5) assessment of alternatives
6) selection of best alternatives
7) action or implementation of alternative
8) evaluation of action and problem solving process
factors affecting decision making
1) children: part of the decision process; share leadership

2) role of individual investment and resources: if you do not care about the decision you won't be involved so it could change the decision

3) outside influences: job, school, other obligations; health and illness
effective communication that forms the basis for family problem solving and decision making includes...
1) being open to allowing different family members to speak out

2) avoiding negative messages, either verbal or nonverbal, that convert hostility

3) seeking more than one option as a solution

4) communicating in clear, positive remarks focused on the problem discussed
principles to help guide family members in decision making
1) create a sense of justice by treating family members equally

2) create a sense of autonomy by respecting each family member's rights to free choices in order to carry out actions that enhance his or her life

3) create a sense of caring by helping other family members achieve their goals

4) create an awareness of which decisions lead lead to actions and behaviors that harm family members or place them at risk

5) create a sense of loyalty via keeping promises and carrying out decisions mutually agreed upon
parenting styles
authoritarian- high demands, strict

laziez faire- hands off approach

authoritative- high demands, good balance
Use McMaster's model of family functioning and explain how your family, a family you know, or a fictional family fulfills or does not fulfill the roles
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Explain the process that a real family or a fake family might use in making a decision and explain the decision and show the process through the decision-making loop
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