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AP Environmental Science Test
Terms in this set (41)
The organisms that represent all of the different interacting species within an ecosystem make up a
Which type of population distribution can enhance protection from predators?
When individuals are found to be distributed evenly throughout an ecosystem it is often because
they are territorial
Animals are sometimes randomly distributed across an ecosystem within a population because of
The fact that resources are not limiting
Which of the following is true?
All of the above
If a population of 100 birds increases to 120 birds the following year, r = __________.
A population of river otters has a growth rate of (r) of 0.2 per year. If the population starts out with 50 individuals and there is no migration, how many
would you expect after one year? After two years?
At the start of a study, there were 200 spotted salamanders in an old-growth forest patch in western Oregon. Over the next year, a biologist tracking the salamanders saw that 25 new salamanders hatched and 5 died. Thus, r for this year was __________.
Which of the following is true?
Under ideal conditions, bacteria and eagle populations both grow exponentially.
The intrinsic growth rate of a population
is the maximum rate at which a population may increase.
An ecosystem's carrying capacity for a population is determined by all of the following factors EXCEPT
climatic events, such as tornadoes
A population of rabbits, introduced to an island, has rapid growth for a few years; then its growth slows. The population becomes stable because
the carrying capacity has been reached
Some predators feed preferentially on the most abundant prey. This type of predation is
An exotic species is one that __________ an ecosystem
is foreign to
Rapid growth may be temporarily observed in a population in response to all of these EXCEPT
introduction of a new parasite
A laboratory experiment followed the growth of a flour beetle (Tribolium sp.) population over time. At first, the population increased dramatically, but later growth slowed and the population size leveled off. While food (the wheat flour in which they live) was abundant, it was noticed that flour beetles resorted to eating their own eggs when densities got high. What can we conclude about cannibalism in this species?
It serves as a density-dependent means of population control.
Populations of predators increase when populations of prey are high because
all of the above
An important density-independent factor limiting population size is
Rabbits were introduced to Australia about 100 years ago for the purpose of hunting. They have been multiplying, eating up the native vegetation, and destroying the native habitat of other small animals ever since. In the 1950s, in order to control the rabbit population, government scientists released the myxomatosis virus. The virus, which dramatically reduced the rabbit population, is an example of
In his 1798 book, An Essay on the Principle of Population, Thomas Malthus stated "...the power of [the Earth's human] population [to increase] is indefinitely greater than the power in the earth to produce subsistence for man." He explained that our population increases exponentially, while we can only increase our food supply linearly. Using our modern terminology, what did Malthus mean by "the power of the earth to produce subsistence for man"?
Most parasites have evolved to __________ their host.
The classic study of the number of lynx and snowshoe hares purchased from trappers by the Hudson Bay Company in northern Canada between 1845 and 1935 showed dramatic, closely linked population cycles of these predators and their prey. But this was not a carefully controlled scientific study. The results of this study could have been skewed because
all of the above
Which of the following is NOT a type of interspecific interaction?
The biologist who studies interactions at the "community" level investigates interactions between
populations of more than one species
Predation is similar to __________ in that both types of relationship benefit one of the interacting species while the other is harmed.
Which of these outcomes is likely in a natural situation when two closely related species compete for resources in the same habitat?
Population size and distribution of each species may be reduced.
Scientists visiting a remote island find two species of birds that appear nearly identical except for bill size. The species with the larger bill eats large seeds, and the species with the smaller bill eats small seeds. According to genetic evidence, the two species are extremely closely related to each other. Which of the following is the most likely explanation of the different bill sizes in these species?
Competition between the two species resulted in resource partitioning.
Two species of buttercup can be found in the same field in South Dakota. They emerge at different times: One species emerges and flowers in early spring, and the other species emerges in late summer, after the first species has set seed. Both flower species are pollinated by the same insect species, which is common in spring and summer. The different flowering times are likely due to
On the slopes of the Carolina Appalachian Mountains, ecologists have studied some closely related plethodontid salamander species for decades. Many of these salamander species, when they occur in separate valleys from each other, tend to have very similar food size choices. However, when these species occur together in a mountain valley, their food choices tend to differ, with some species selecting small insects and others feeding exclusively on larger insects. This may be an example of
Over the past century, sagebrush has dramatically expanded its range over the Colorado plateau's grasslands. This has been attributed to the overgrazing of the area's grasses by cattle and sheep. This example indicates that
the range of sagebrush is normally limited by competition with grasses.
Which of the following statements BEST describes the reason why bright coloration is an effective defense against predators?
The predators can see the color and, either through natural selection (if the prey is toxic) or learning (if the prey is merely unpalatable), avoid the prey.
Several species of harmless kingsnakes (Lampropeltis spp) mimic the color patterns of venomous coral snakes (Micrurus fulvius), which serve as models. If avoidance were based solely on prior predator experience with the model, what do you predict would happen in areas where coral snakes were never present?
predators would attack and eat kingsnakes
Which of the following is NOT an example of two organisms in a mutualistic relationship?
Humans and the protozoa that cause malaria
Which of the following is NOT an example of two organisms in a parasitic relationship?
A carnivorous plant and the insect it captures and digests
Sap-feeding insects that feed on plants may be classified as
A species that plays a major role in determining the structure of its ecological community is
a keystone species
A certain species of animal represents just 3% of the biomass in its ecosystem. We might classify this as a keystone species if its elimination
caused the diversity of the plant community to sharply decrease.
__________ succession begins on bare rock after glaciers have passed, or on newly formed volcanic islands.
After a forested area such as a national forest is clear-cut, what type of succession occurs?
All of the following are factors that influence species richness of a community EXCEPT:
Habitat size and community distances are the basis for