a system of communication using sounds or gestures that are put together in meaningful ways according to a set of rules
sounds or gestures that stand for meanings among a group of people
a sound or gesture that has a natural or self-evident meaning
the modern scientific study of all aspects of language
the study of the production, transmission, and reception of speech sounds
in linguistics, the smallest classes of sound that make a difference in meaning
in linguistics, the smallest units of sound that carry a meaning
a sound that can occur in a language only in combination with other sounds
morphemes that can occur unattached in a language
a method used to identify the syntactic units of language
in linguistics, the rules or principles of phrase and sentence making
the entire formal structure of a language consisting of all observations about the morphemes and syntax
the parts of speech or categories of words that work the same way in any sentence
a system of notating and analyzing postures, facial expressions, and body movements that convey messages
the extra linguistics noises that accompany languages
in para language, the background characteristics of a speaker's voice
identifiable paralinguistic noises that are turned on and off at perceivable and relatively short intevals
in paralanguage, sound productions such as laughing or crying that humans "speak through"
in paralanguage, sound productions of brief duration that modify utterances in terms of intensity
in paralanguage, sound productions that are similar to the sounds of language, but do not appear in sequences that can properly be called words
a group of languages that are ultimately descended from a single ancestral language
the development of different languages from a single ancestral language
in linguistics, a method of dating divergence in branches of language families
in language, pronouns, lower numerals, and names for body parts and natural objects
the attempt by ethnic minorities, and even countries to proclaim independence by purging their language of foreign terms
the study of the relation between language and culture
the proposition that diverse interpretations of reality embodied in languages yield demonstrable influences on thought
varying forms of a language that reflect particular regions or social classes and that are similar enough to be mutually intelligible
the study of the structure and use of language as it relates to its social setting
the process of changing from one level of language to another
the ability to refer to things and events removed in time and space
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