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31 terms

Ch 15. The Nature of Language

STUDY
PLAY
Language
a system of communication using sounds or gestures that are put together in meaningful ways according to a set of rules
Symbols
sounds or gestures that stand for meanings among a group of people
Signal
a sound or gesture that has a natural or self-evident meaning
Linguistics
the modern scientific study of all aspects of language
Phonetics
the study of the production, transmission, and reception of speech sounds
Phonemes
in linguistics, the smallest classes of sound that make a difference in meaning
Morphemes
in linguistics, the smallest units of sound that carry a meaning
Bound Morpheme
a sound that can occur in a language only in combination with other sounds
Free Morpheme
morphemes that can occur unattached in a language
Frame Substitution
a method used to identify the syntactic units of language
Syntax
in linguistics, the rules or principles of phrase and sentence making
Grammar
the entire formal structure of a language consisting of all observations about the morphemes and syntax
Form Classes
the parts of speech or categories of words that work the same way in any sentence
Kinesics
a system of notating and analyzing postures, facial expressions, and body movements that convey messages
Paralanguage
the extra linguistics noises that accompany languages
Voice Qualities
in para language, the background characteristics of a speaker's voice
Vocalizations
identifiable paralinguistic noises that are turned on and off at perceivable and relatively short intevals
Vocal Characterizers
in paralanguage, sound productions such as laughing or crying that humans "speak through"
Vocal Qualifiers
in paralanguage, sound productions of brief duration that modify utterances in terms of intensity
Vocal Segregates
in paralanguage, sound productions that are similar to the sounds of language, but do not appear in sequences that can properly be called words
Language Family
a group of languages that are ultimately descended from a single ancestral language
Linguistic divergence
the development of different languages from a single ancestral language
Glottochronology
in linguistics, a method of dating divergence in branches of language families
Core Vocabulary
in language, pronouns, lower numerals, and names for body parts and natural objects
Linguistic Nationalism
the attempt by ethnic minorities, and even countries to proclaim independence by purging their language of foreign terms
Ethnolinguistics
the study of the relation between language and culture
Linguistic Relativity
the proposition that diverse interpretations of reality embodied in languages yield demonstrable influences on thought
Dialects
varying forms of a language that reflect particular regions or social classes and that are similar enough to be mutually intelligible
Sociolinguistics
the study of the structure and use of language as it relates to its social setting
Code Switching
the process of changing from one level of language to another
Displacement
the ability to refer to things and events removed in time and space