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66 terms

Ch 21 Reproductive System

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reproductive system functions
create new organism;
secrete hormones necessary for sexual characteristics and development
gamete
germ cell;
eg, egg and sperm
gonad
reproductive organ: ovary and testis
oogenesis
creation of ovum (egg);
occurs via meiosis (sex-cell division)
spermatogenesis
creation of spermatozoa;
occurs via meiosis (sex-cell division)
meiosis
sex-cell division;
results in gamete with 23 chromosomes (22 autosomal & 1 sex chromosome: X or Y)
fertilization
fusion of egg and sperm;
usually occurs in uterine tube;
aka conception
zygote
fertilized egg;
46 chromosomes;
aka early embryo
ovary
female gamete-producing organ;
also produces hormones estrogen and progesterone
Graafian follicle
sacs in ovary containing developing ova
ovulation
release of ovum from Graafian follicle; corpus luteum remains
corpus luteum
"empty" degenerating Graafian follicle after ovulation; releases progesterone
Fallopian tubes
pair of tubes from ovary to uterus;
propels ovum towards uterus;
fertilzation usually occurs here;
aka uterine tube or oviduct
uterus
hollow muscular organ in which a zygote may develop into fetus;
3 parts fundus, body, cervix
3 layers, endo-, myo-, and perimetrium
fundus
rounded "hump"-like sturcture (in uterus or stomach)
body
largest part of many organs (eg, uterus, penis, stomach)
cervix
"neck" of the uterus, which extends into vagina
perimetrium
serous membrane that covers the outside of uterus
myometrium
large muscular layer of the uterus
endometrium
inside lining of uterus, where a zygote may implant and develop;
active zone (innermost portion) sloughs (falls out) during menstruation
vagina
muscular tube that receives semen, discharges menses; and forms lower portion of birth canal
perineum
area between vagina and anus
vulva
external female genitalia;
includes labia majora/minora, vestibule, clitoris, and hymen
mons pubis
"pubic mound"; made of fatty tissue overlying pubic symphysis (joint of two pubic pelvis bones) for protection
labia majora
2 large fat-filled skin folds that enclose vulva
labia minora
2 smaller folds of skin that enclose vestibule
vestibule
area between the labia minora
clitoris
erectile organ, similar to the penis;
responds to stimulation, increasing opportunity for orgasm
orgasm
pleasurable rhythmic muscular contraction;
expels semen in males and may (maybe not) assist fertilization in females
Bartholin's glands
lubricates the vagina with mucus-like solution
hymen
epithelial fold that covers some of vaginal orifice
breast
either of 2 soft fleshy milk-secreting glandular organs on female chest
mammary gland
gland in mammalian breast; produces milk to nourish young
lactiferous duct
transport milk from mammary glands to nipple
areola
circular pigmented area surrounding nipple; darken during pregnancy
prolactin
hormone that stimulates milk production;
(several other functions)
oxytocin
hormone causes uterine contraction, milk leet-down, and involved in pair-bonding between partners & mother/child (many other interesting things!);
means "quick birth" in Greek
menstrual cycle
4 phases:
1. follicle
2. ovulation
3. luteal (or corpus luteum)
4. menstruation
follicle stage
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) stimulates ovum development in follicle
follicle-stimulating hormone
signal in blood released by anterior pituitary (aka "master gland");
stimulates ovum development (oogenesis in ♀) andestrogen release (in ♀) and sperm development (spermatogenesis in ♂);
aka FSH
estrogen
female hormone released by ovary;
responsible for secondary sex characteristics (in ♀)
ovulation
release of ovum from ovary upon luteinizing-hormone surge
luteinizing hormone
signal in blood released by anterior pituitary (aka "master gland");
stimulates ovulation (in ♀) and testosterone production (in ♂);
aka LH
luteal stage
"empty" follicle divides and releases progesterone
progesterone
hormone produced by corpus luteum in ovary (or placenta) to thicken and maintain uterus, and thus, pregnancy;
main component of hormonal contraceptives
menstrual stage
begins when LH decreases;
initiates menses (ie "period")
menstruation
active zone (innermost portion) of endometrium sloughs (falls out)
menarche
first menstruation;
occurs at onset of puberty usually between 12-15 years (range 9-17 years)
menopause
menstruation stopping;
occurs between 45-55years of age
testes
male gonads in scrotum;
produces sperm and tersosterone
scrotum
fleshy pouch contains testis
spermatozoa
male gamete;
made of: head (DNA in chromosomes, or genetic material), middle piece (with mitochondria), and flagellum (for propulsion);
aka sperm (shortened)
epididymis
comma-shaped organ on testis, where sperm mature
vas deferens
receives mature sperm from epididymis and expels them through ejaculatory duct upon ejaculation (usually accompanying orgasm);
aka ductus deferens
ejaculatory duct
duct where vas deferens and seminal vesicle meet; carries fluid through prostate gland into urethra
seminal gland
located between bladder and rectum; secretes about 60% of seminal fluid, high in fructose (sugar)
prostate gland
firm (partly) muscular chestnut-sized gland (in ♂) at urethral neck; secretes alkaline, thick seminal fluid (about 30% of semen)
bulbo-urethral gland
bulb-shaped glands along ♂ urethra; may serve to lubricate penis and neutralize acidity of urethra
semen
composed of sperm & seminal fluid (from 3 glands);
aka ejaculate
penis
♂ copulatory organ (similar to clitoris);
3 parts: root, body (or shaft), and glans ("head")
erection
when ♂ is aroused, penis becomes engorged with blood and rigid
glans penis
tip of penis;
aka "head" of penis
prepuce
foreskin;
may be removed during circumcision
circumcision
removal of foreskin (historically, ritually performed);
recently shown to reduce HIV transmission
emission
forceful discharge of semen into urethra
ejaculation
forceful semen expulsion out of urethra