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what type of drug is opium?


most memories are constituted by what?


disorder characterized by temporarily not breathing while sleeping

sleep apnea

THC is what type of drug?


disorder that causes someone to sleep whenever?


if you are taking a hearing test and you cannot hear a sound that is given, it is below your what?

absolute threshold

discontinued use of drugs causes what?


your eyes quiver to necessarily minimize?

sensory adaptation

Some stroke victims lose the capacity to perceive motion but retain the capacity to perceive shapes and colors. Others lose the capacity to perceive colors but retain the capacity to perceive movement and form. These peculiar visual disabilities best illustrate our normal capacity for:

parallel processing

Visual information is processed by ganglion cells:

after it is processed by rods and cones and after it is processed by bipolar cells.

If you move your watchband up your wrist an inch or so, you will feel it for only a few moments. This best illustrates:

sensory adaptation

If a visual image is first presented subliminally, the chance of a person later recognizing the same briefly presented image is improved. This best illustrates:

that information can be processed outside of conscious awareness

Experiencing sudden pain is to _______ as recognizing that you are suffering a heart attack is to ________.

sensation; perception

An organism's complete set of genetic instructions is called

the genome

Adoptive parents are least likely to influence the ________ of their adopted children.

personality traits

At a social gathering, Latin Americans may behave in a manner that North Americans consider intrusive and overly expressive. This best illustrates the importance of being sensitive to differing:


Displays of self-effacing humility are most characteristic of those who value:


Premature babies are especially likely to gain weight if stimulated by

touch and massage

Drivers detect traffic signals more slowly if they are also conversing on a cellphone. This best illustrates the impact of

selective attention

The simultaneous processing of information on many parallel tracks is most closely associated with:

unconscious mental activity

Staying up especially late on weekends is most likely to have an influence on

the circadian rhythm

Sleepwalking is most likely to be associated with ________ sleep.

stage 4

A recurring sleep stage during which most vivid dreams commonly occur is known as ________ sleep.


As drug users experience neuroadaptation, they demonstrate signs of


Alcohol consumption disrupts the processing of recent experiences into long-term memory by:

decreasing REM sleep

Nicotine triggers a(an) ________ in anxiety and a(n) ________ in mental alertness.

decrease, increase

Research on addictive drugs most clearly indicates that:

most of American ex-smokers were able to kick the habit on their own

The experience of vivid geometric images and dreamlike scenes is most likely to be triggered by:


The fact that we recognize objects as having a consistent form regardless of changing viewing angles illustrates:

perceptual constancy

The monocular depth cue in which an object blocking another object is perceived as closer is:


The Moon illusion refers to our tendency to perceive the Moon as unusually:

large when it's near the horizon

The visual cliff is a laboratory device for testing ________ in infants.

depth perception

The way in which you quickly group the individual letters in this test item into separate words best illustrates the principle of:


an organized whole is greater than the sum of its parts


which muscle controls light entering the eyes


awareness of ones self and environment


when taking larger doses of a drug to feel the same effect


having different colored uniforms and perceiving the teams as different is an example of?

similarity perspective

detection and encoding of stimulus energies by NS?


study of relative power and limits genetic behavior

behavioral genetics

kids choose to hang out with their peers, this is an example of?

selection effects

ones sense of being male or female?

gender identity

a bowling team is sitting in the same line, you think they are on the same team because of this, this is an example of?


what is a perceptual set? how does it apply to vision? how else can it be applied?

mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not the other. vision= we use this when we a see a picture and keep that picture in mind as it gradually changes.

when it comes to perception, what is meant by the term gestalt? what grouping principles are used?

we tend to organize information into a meaningful whole. we use proximity, similarity, continuity, connectedness, and closure

what are binocular cues?

depth cues, such as retinal disparity, that depend on use of two eyes ex: retinal disparity (images from 2 eyes differ) and convergence ( how far eye moves to focus on something)

what are monocular cues?

available to each eye separately

what is perceptual constancy?

perceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination and retinal images change

how is light energy converted to sensation through our vision? what factors come into play?

ganglion axons forming the optic nerve run to the thalamus, where they synapse with neurons that run to the visual cortex

how does the eye work?

light enters the eye at the cornea, which passes through the eye and bends light to provide focus. light then passes through the pupil, a small adjustable opening around the iris, a colored muscle that adjusts light intake. the iris dilates or constricts in response to light intensity. the lens then focuses incoming light rays into an image on the retina, the lens focuses the rays by changing its curvature

how is visual information processed?

through the retinal layers of the eye ( passes through many rods and cones)

how is color processed?

the eye picks up small amounts of wavelengths

what are thresholds?

stimulus required for neurons to fire

how do absolute and difference thresholds work?

absolute- the minimum stimulation necessary to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time
difference- the difference between 2 stimuli required for detection 50% of the time

how are the different thresholds related to subliminal stimuli?

we cannot detect the stimuli below the threshold

how are the different thresholds related to Webers law?

to be perceived as different, stimuli must differ by a constant percentage (light 8% weight 2% tone 3%)

How is sensory adaptation related to thresholds?

to adapt to a sense, we first need to find the threshold at which we detect the sense

how are sensation and perception related?

we have to detect the energy then we must interpret the sensation

how are bottom-up and top-down processing different?

bottom up- begins with sensory receptors and works up to integration
top down- guided by higher level processes, drawing on experience and expectations

what is hypothesized as the common mechanism for addiction(neurotransmitter and the brain structure implicated?)


how does the biopsychosocial model apply to drug use?

each category something different
biological- did the parents do drugs
psychological- do they lack a sense of purpose or are they depressed
social- are their peers influencing them

what are major classification for drugs we talked about in class? how do they affect the brain?

depressants- depress neural activity (CNS) and slow body functions,reduce anxiety, impair memory and judgment (barbituates and sedatives), opiates-- lessen pain and anxiety
stimulants-excite neural activity and speed up body functions, increase heart and breathing rate, provide energy (nicotine and caffeine), cocaine-- euphoric affect, ecstasy-- release stored serotonin and block absorption, release dopamine
hallucinogens- distort perception and envoke sensory images (LSD), THC--amplify emotional state, slow reaction time, impair memory and motivation

what is the nature of addiction? what common misconceptions are out there?

a craving for a substance, despite negative consequences and withdrawal symptoms
misconceptions- addiction cannot be overcome voluntarily
addictive drugs quickly corrupt
addiction is no more than repeated pleasure seeking behaviors

how might someone argue against being addicted to an activity, rather than a substance

they just want to do the activity because they need to get their mind off of something
they feel good when they do it

how is a psychoactive drug defined?

chemical substance that alters perception and mood (affects consciousnesses)

how is tolerance defined?

repeated exposure to a drug, the effects lessen

how is withdrawal defined?

discomfort and distress after discontinuing use of drug

what and why do we dream?

8/10 dreams are negative emotions
sex (very seldom)

what theories are there to explain why we dream?

wish fulfillment (fraud)
memory (cognative)
nureal pathways
make sense of neural static
cognitive development (growth)

what does abnormal sleep look like?

sleep without all 5 stages, usually REM is not present

what does normal sleep look like?

5 stages, all four sleep stage 5 REM

what is selective attention, give some examples

limited focus of our attention that we are aware of

what are inattention blindness?

failure to see a visible object when our attention is directed elsewhere

what is change blindness?

failure to notice a change while involved in a task (a form of inattention blindness)

what factors influence consciousness?

state, substance and attention

how do biology and environment affect gender?

biology is when you are selected in the womb your gender, XX female XY male, environment influences how you act as a certain gender

what effect does culture have on us?

we need to understand the norms and personal space in our cultures.

how might a person from a collectivist culture see the world different than an individualist? how might this affect life choices-- career, mate?

collect= responsible for a group, priority to obedience, be true to your family self, be loyal to group, be interdependent ( choose to put other before themselves and give to others)
individual= responsible for yourself, follow your conscience, discover your gifts, be true to yourself, be independent ( put yourself before others)

how might experiences affect our brain development?

good experiences promote brain activity
bad experiences have less stimuli in brain

what influences do parents really have? what can we blame them for? praise them for?

the influences come out at extremes
blame=abuse, neglect,
praise=manners, beliefs

what makes twin studies valuable?

to scientifically tease apart influences on genetics and environment

what are behavior genetics? what is the role of environment? what do we mean by a "gene- environment interaction?"

the study of relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior.
role of the environment- every non genetic influence on us
gene-environment interaction- how much did each effect on the way we are today

what is proximity?

grouping nearby figures together

what is similarity?

we group similar figures together

what is continuity?

we perceive smooth, continuous patterns rather than discontinuous ones

what is connectedness?

because they are uniform and linked, we perceive the two dots and the line between it as a single unit

what is closure?

we fill in gaps to create a complete, whole object.

define sensation

how we detect physical energy from the environment and encode it into neural signals

define perception

how we select, organize and interpret our sensations

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