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89 terms

psyc test 2

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what type of drug is opium?
depressant
most memories are constituted by what?
dreams
disorder characterized by temporarily not breathing while sleeping
sleep apnea
THC is what type of drug?
hallucinogen
disorder that causes someone to sleep whenever?
narcolepsy
if you are taking a hearing test and you cannot hear a sound that is given, it is below your what?
absolute threshold
discontinued use of drugs causes what?
withdrawals
your eyes quiver to necessarily minimize?
sensory adaptation
Some stroke victims lose the capacity to perceive motion but retain the capacity to perceive shapes and colors. Others lose the capacity to perceive colors but retain the capacity to perceive movement and form. These peculiar visual disabilities best illustrate our normal capacity for:
parallel processing
Visual information is processed by ganglion cells:
after it is processed by rods and cones and after it is processed by bipolar cells.
If you move your watchband up your wrist an inch or so, you will feel it for only a few moments. This best illustrates:
sensory adaptation
If a visual image is first presented subliminally, the chance of a person later recognizing the same briefly presented image is improved. This best illustrates:
that information can be processed outside of conscious awareness
Experiencing sudden pain is to _______ as recognizing that you are suffering a heart attack is to ________.
sensation; perception
An organism's complete set of genetic instructions is called
the genome
Adoptive parents are least likely to influence the ________ of their adopted children.
personality traits
At a social gathering, Latin Americans may behave in a manner that North Americans consider intrusive and overly expressive. This best illustrates the importance of being sensitive to differing:
norms
Displays of self-effacing humility are most characteristic of those who value:
collectivism
Premature babies are especially likely to gain weight if stimulated by
touch and massage
Drivers detect traffic signals more slowly if they are also conversing on a cellphone. This best illustrates the impact of
selective attention
The simultaneous processing of information on many parallel tracks is most closely associated with:
unconscious mental activity
Staying up especially late on weekends is most likely to have an influence on
the circadian rhythm
Sleepwalking is most likely to be associated with ________ sleep.
stage 4
A recurring sleep stage during which most vivid dreams commonly occur is known as ________ sleep.
REM
As drug users experience neuroadaptation, they demonstrate signs of
tolerance
Alcohol consumption disrupts the processing of recent experiences into long-term memory by:
decreasing REM sleep
Nicotine triggers a(an) ________ in anxiety and a(n) ________ in mental alertness.
decrease, increase
Research on addictive drugs most clearly indicates that:
most of American ex-smokers were able to kick the habit on their own
The experience of vivid geometric images and dreamlike scenes is most likely to be triggered by:
LSD
The fact that we recognize objects as having a consistent form regardless of changing viewing angles illustrates:
perceptual constancy
The monocular depth cue in which an object blocking another object is perceived as closer is:
interposition
The Moon illusion refers to our tendency to perceive the Moon as unusually:
large when it's near the horizon
The visual cliff is a laboratory device for testing ________ in infants.
depth perception
The way in which you quickly group the individual letters in this test item into separate words best illustrates the principle of:
proximity
an organized whole is greater than the sum of its parts
ghastalt
which muscle controls light entering the eyes
iris
awareness of ones self and environment
consciousness
when taking larger doses of a drug to feel the same effect
tolerance
having different colored uniforms and perceiving the teams as different is an example of?
similarity perspective
detection and encoding of stimulus energies by NS?
sensation
study of relative power and limits genetic behavior
behavioral genetics
kids choose to hang out with their peers, this is an example of?
selection effects
ones sense of being male or female?
gender identity
a bowling team is sitting in the same line, you think they are on the same team because of this, this is an example of?
proximity
what is a perceptual set? how does it apply to vision? how else can it be applied?
mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not the other. vision= we use this when we a see a picture and keep that picture in mind as it gradually changes.
when it comes to perception, what is meant by the term gestalt? what grouping principles are used?
we tend to organize information into a meaningful whole. we use proximity, similarity, continuity, connectedness, and closure
what are binocular cues?
depth cues, such as retinal disparity, that depend on use of two eyes ex: retinal disparity (images from 2 eyes differ) and convergence ( how far eye moves to focus on something)
what are monocular cues?
available to each eye separately
what is perceptual constancy?
perceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination and retinal images change
how is light energy converted to sensation through our vision? what factors come into play?
ganglion axons forming the optic nerve run to the thalamus, where they synapse with neurons that run to the visual cortex
how does the eye work?
light enters the eye at the cornea, which passes through the eye and bends light to provide focus. light then passes through the pupil, a small adjustable opening around the iris, a colored muscle that adjusts light intake. the iris dilates or constricts in response to light intensity. the lens then focuses incoming light rays into an image on the retina, the lens focuses the rays by changing its curvature
how is visual information processed?
through the retinal layers of the eye ( passes through many rods and cones)
how is color processed?
the eye picks up small amounts of wavelengths
what are thresholds?
stimulus required for neurons to fire
how do absolute and difference thresholds work?
absolute- the minimum stimulation necessary to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time
difference- the difference between 2 stimuli required for detection 50% of the time
how are the different thresholds related to subliminal stimuli?
we cannot detect the stimuli below the threshold
how are the different thresholds related to Webers law?
to be perceived as different, stimuli must differ by a constant percentage (light 8% weight 2% tone 3%)
How is sensory adaptation related to thresholds?
to adapt to a sense, we first need to find the threshold at which we detect the sense
how are sensation and perception related?
we have to detect the energy then we must interpret the sensation
how are bottom-up and top-down processing different?
bottom up- begins with sensory receptors and works up to integration
top down- guided by higher level processes, drawing on experience and expectations
what is hypothesized as the common mechanism for addiction(neurotransmitter and the brain structure implicated?)
...
how does the biopsychosocial model apply to drug use?
each category something different
biological- did the parents do drugs
psychological- do they lack a sense of purpose or are they depressed
social- are their peers influencing them
what are major classification for drugs we talked about in class? how do they affect the brain?
depressants- depress neural activity (CNS) and slow body functions,reduce anxiety, impair memory and judgment (barbituates and sedatives), opiates-- lessen pain and anxiety
stimulants-excite neural activity and speed up body functions, increase heart and breathing rate, provide energy (nicotine and caffeine), cocaine-- euphoric affect, ecstasy-- release stored serotonin and block absorption, release dopamine
hallucinogens- distort perception and envoke sensory images (LSD), THC--amplify emotional state, slow reaction time, impair memory and motivation
what is the nature of addiction? what common misconceptions are out there?
a craving for a substance, despite negative consequences and withdrawal symptoms
misconceptions- addiction cannot be overcome voluntarily
addictive drugs quickly corrupt
addiction is no more than repeated pleasure seeking behaviors
how might someone argue against being addicted to an activity, rather than a substance
they just want to do the activity because they need to get their mind off of something
they feel good when they do it
how is a psychoactive drug defined?
chemical substance that alters perception and mood (affects consciousnesses)
how is tolerance defined?
repeated exposure to a drug, the effects lessen
how is withdrawal defined?
discomfort and distress after discontinuing use of drug
what and why do we dream?
8/10 dreams are negative emotions
failure
sex (very seldom)
what theories are there to explain why we dream?
wish fulfillment (fraud)
memory (cognative)
nureal pathways
make sense of neural static
cognitive development (growth)
what does abnormal sleep look like?
sleep without all 5 stages, usually REM is not present
what does normal sleep look like?
5 stages, all four sleep stage 5 REM
what is selective attention, give some examples
limited focus of our attention that we are aware of
what are inattention blindness?
failure to see a visible object when our attention is directed elsewhere
what is change blindness?
failure to notice a change while involved in a task (a form of inattention blindness)
what factors influence consciousness?
state, substance and attention
how do biology and environment affect gender?
biology is when you are selected in the womb your gender, XX female XY male, environment influences how you act as a certain gender
what effect does culture have on us?
we need to understand the norms and personal space in our cultures.
how might a person from a collectivist culture see the world different than an individualist? how might this affect life choices-- career, mate?
collect= responsible for a group, priority to obedience, be true to your family self, be loyal to group, be interdependent ( choose to put other before themselves and give to others)
individual= responsible for yourself, follow your conscience, discover your gifts, be true to yourself, be independent ( put yourself before others)
how might experiences affect our brain development?
good experiences promote brain activity
bad experiences have less stimuli in brain
what influences do parents really have? what can we blame them for? praise them for?
the influences come out at extremes
blame=abuse, neglect,
praise=manners, beliefs
what makes twin studies valuable?
to scientifically tease apart influences on genetics and environment
what are behavior genetics? what is the role of environment? what do we mean by a "gene- environment interaction?"
the study of relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior.
role of the environment- every non genetic influence on us
gene-environment interaction- how much did each effect on the way we are today
what is proximity?
grouping nearby figures together
what is similarity?
we group similar figures together
what is continuity?
we perceive smooth, continuous patterns rather than discontinuous ones
what is connectedness?
because they are uniform and linked, we perceive the two dots and the line between it as a single unit
what is closure?
we fill in gaps to create a complete, whole object.
define sensation
how we detect physical energy from the environment and encode it into neural signals
define perception
how we select, organize and interpret our sensations