146 terms

Psych 1101 Prelim 2

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Learning
The acquisition of new knowledge, skills, or responses from experience that results in a relatively permanent change in the state of the learner
Habituation
A general process in which repeated or prolonged exposure to a stimulus results in a gradual reduction in response
Sensitization
Presentation of a stimulus leads to increased response to a later stimulus
Classical conditioning
A neutral stimulus produces a response after it is paired with a stimulus that naturally produces a response
Unconditioned stimulus
Something that reliably produces a naturally occurring reaction
Unconditioned response
reflexive reaction reliably produced by an unconditioned stimulus
Conditioned stimulus
previously neutral stimulus that produces a reliable response in an organism after being paired with an unconditioned stimulus
Conditioned response
Reaction that resembles an unconditioned response but is produced by a conditioned stimulus
Acquisition
Phase of classical conditioning when the CS and US are presented together
Second order conditioning
Conditioning where a CS is paired with a stimulus that became associated with the US in an earlier procedure
Extinction
Gradual elimination of a learned response that occurs when the Conditioned Stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus
Spontaneous Recovery
Tendency of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period
Generalization
The conditioned response is observed even though the conditioned stimulus is slightly different from the CS used during acquisition
Discrimination
Capacity to distinguish between similar but distinct stimuli
Biological preparedness
Propensity for learning particular kinds of associations over others
Operant conditioning
Type of learning in which the consequences of an organism's behavior determine whether it will be repeated in the future
Law of effect
Behaviors that are followed by a "satisfying state of affairs" tend to be repeated and those that produce an "unpleasant state of affairs" are less likely to be repeated
Operant behavior
Behavior an organism produces that has some sort of impact on the environment
Reinforcer
Any stimulus or event that functions to increase the likelihood of the behavior that led to it
Punisher
Any stimulus or event that functions to decrease the likelihood of the behavior that led to it
Three-term-contingency
In presence of a discriminative stimulus a response produces a reinforcer
Fixed-interval schedule
Reinforcements are presented at fixed time periods provided appropriate response is made
Variable-interval schedule
Behavior is reinforced based on an average time that has expired since the last reinforcement
Fixed-ratio schedule
Reinforcement is delivered after a specific number of responses have been made (after each response = continuous reinforcement)
Variable-ration schedule
Delivery of reinforcement is based on particular average number of responses
Intermittent reinforcement
When only some of the responses made are followed by reinforcement (behavior becomes much more resistant to extinction)
Intermittent reinforcement effect
Fact that operant behaviors that are maintained under intermittent reinforcement schedules resist extinction better than those maintained under continuous reinforcement
Shaping
Learning that results from the reinforcement of successive steps to a final desired behavior
Latent learning
Something is learned, but is not manifested as a behavioral change until some time in the future
Cognitive map
Mental representation of the physical features of the environment
Observational learning
Learning that takes place by watching the actions of others
Diffusion chain
Individuals initially learn a behavior by observing another individual perform that behavior and then serve as a model from which other individuals learn that behavior
Implicit learning
Learning that takes place largely independent of awareness of both the process and products of information acquisition
Consciousness
A person's subjective experience of the world and the mind
Penomenology
How things seem to the conscious person
Problem of other minds
Fundamental difficulty we have in perceiving the consciousness of others
Mind-Body Problem
Issue of how the mind is related to the brain and body
Intentionality
Property of consciousness: Quality of consciousness being directed toward an object
Unity
Property of consciousness: Ability to integrate info from all of the body's senses into one coherent whole
Selectivity
Property of consciousness: Capacity to include some objects but not others
Transience (consciousness)
Property of consciousness: Tendency to change
Dichotic listening
People wear headphones, hear different messages in each ear, showing selectivity in what they comprehend
Cocktail-party phenomenon
People tune in to one message, even while filtering out others nearby
Minimal consciousness
Low-level kind of sensory awareness/responsiveness that occurs when the mind inputs sensations and may output behavior
Full consciousness
You know and are able to report your mental state
Self-consciousness
Distinct level of consciousness in which the person's attention is drawn to the self as an object
Mental control
Attempt to change conscious state of the mind
Thought suppression
Conscious avoidance of a thought
Rebound effect of thought suppression
Tendency of a thought to return to consciousness with greater frequency following suppression
Ironic processes of mental control
Ironic errors occur because the mental process that monitors errors can itself produce them
Dynamic unconscious
Active system encompassing a lifetime of hidden memories, the person's deepest instincts and desires, and the person's inner struggle to control these forces
Repression
Mental process that removes unacceptable thoughts and memories from consciousness and keeps them in the unconscious
Cognitive unconscious
All mental processes that give rise to a person's thoughts, choices, emotions, and behavior even though they are not experienced by the person
Subliminal perception
thought or behavior is influenced by stimuli that a person cannot consciously report perceiving
Altered state of consciousness
A form of experience that departs significantly from the normal subjective experience of the world and the mind
Circadian rhythm
A naturally occurring 24 hour cycle
REM sleep
Stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movement and high level of brain activity
Electrooculograph (EOG)
Instrument that measures eye movements
Insomnia
Difficulty in falling asleep or staying asleep
Sleep apnea
Disorder in which a person stops breathing for brief periods of time while asleep
Somnambulism
When a person arises and walks around while asleep
Narcolepsy
Disorder in which sudden sleep attacks occur in the middle of waking activities
Sleep paralysis
Experience of waking up unable to move
Night terrors
Abrupt awakenings with panic and intense emotional arousal
Manifest content
A dream's apparent topic or superficial meaning
Latent content
A dream's true underlying meaning
Activation-synthesis model
Theory that proposes dreams are produced when the brain attempts to make sense of random neural activity that occurs during sleep
Psychoactive drugs
Chemicals that influence consciousness or behavior by altering the brain's chemical message system
Drug tolerance
Tendency for larger drug doses to be required over time to achieve the same effect
Physical dependence
Effect of drug use that produces withdrawal symptoms that make a person physically ill
Psychological dependence
Strong desire to return to the drug even when physical symptoms are gone
Depressants
Substances that reduce the activity of the central nervous system (alcohol, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, toxic inhalants); have sedative/calming effect, induce sleep, can arrest breathing, can produce physical and psychological dependence
Expectancy theory
Suggests alcohol effects can be produced by people's expectations of how alcohol will influence them in particular situations
Alcohol myopia
Proposes that alcohol hampers attention, leading people to respond in simple ways to complex situations
Stimulants
Substances that excite the central nervous system, heightening arousal and activity levels (caffeine, amphetamines, nicotine, cocaine, modafinil, ecstasy); increase levels of dopamine and norepinephrine
Narcotics (opiates)
Highly addictive drugs derived from opium that relieve pain. Induce feeling of well-being and relaxation, can induce stupor and lethargy
Hallucinogens
Drugs that alter sensation and perception and often cause visual and auditory hallucinations (LSD, mescaline, psilocybin = shrooms, PCP, ketamine). Effects are dramatic and unpredictable. Unlikely addictive
Marijuana (cannabis)
A plant whose leaves and buds contain the psychoactive drug THC. Produces intoxication that is mildly hallucinogenic, euphoric with heightened senses and perception of a rush of ideas. Effects judgement/short=term memory/coordination and motor skills
Hypnosis
A social interaction in which one person makes suggestions that lead to a change in another person's subjective experience of the world
Post hypnotic amnesia
Failure to retrieve memories following hypnotic suggestions to forget
Hypnotic analgesia
reduction of pain through hypnosis in people who are susceptible
Memory
The ability to store and retrieve information over time
Encoding
The process of transforming what we perceive, think, or feel into an enduring memory
Storage
The process of maintaining information ni memory over time
Retrieval
The process of bringing to mind information that has previously been encoded and stored
Semantic encoding
Process of relating new information in a way that is meaningful to knowledge that is already stored in memory
Visual encoding
Process of storing new information by converting it to mental pictures
Organizational encoding
Process of categorizing information according to the relationships among a series of items
Sensory memory
Type of storage that holds sensory information for a few seconds or less
Iconic memory
Fast decaying store of visual information (~1 sec)
Echoic memory
Fast decaying store of auditory information (~5 secs)
Short-term memory
Holds non-sensory information for more than a few seconds but less than a minute
Rehearsal
Process of keeping information in short-term memory by mentally repeating it
Chunking
Combining small pieces of information into larger clusters or chunks that are more easily held in short term memory
Working memory
Active maintenance of information in short-term storage
Long-term Memory
Type of storage that holds information for hours, days, weeks, or years
Anterograde amnesia
Inability to transfer new information from short term storage
Retrograde amnesia
Inability to retrieve information acquired before a particular date (usually that of an injury or surgery)
Consolidation
Process by which memories become stable in the brain
Reconsolidation
Memories can become vulnerable to disruption when called, requiring them to be consolidated again
Long-term potentation (LTP)
Process whereby communication across synapse between neurons strengthens the connection, making further communication easier
Retrieval cue
External information associated with stored information that helps bring it to mind
Encoding specificity principle
A retrieval cue can serve as an effective reminder when it helps re-create the specific way in which information was originally encoded
State-dependent retrieval
Tendency for information to be recalled better when the person is in the same state during encoding and retrieval
Transfer-appropriate processing
The idea that memory is likely to transfer from one situation to another when the encoding and retrieval contexts of the situation match
Retrieval-induced forgetting
Process by which retrieving an item from long-term memory impairs subsequent recall of related items
Explicit memory
When people consciously or intentionally retrieve past experiences
Implicit memory
Past experiences influence later behavior and performance, even without an effort to remember them or an awareness of the recollection
Procedural memory
Gradual acquisition of skills as a result of practice or "knowing how" to do things
Priming
An enhanced ability to think of a stimulus, such as a word or object, as a result of recent exposure to the stimulus
Semantic memory
Network of associated facts and concepts that make up our general knowledge of the world
Episodic memory
Collection of past personal experiences that occurred at a particular time and place
Transience (memory)
Forgetting what occurs with the passage of time
Retroactive interference
Situations in which later learning impairs memory for information acquired earlier
Proactive interference
Situations in which earlier learning impairs memory for information acquired later
Absentmindedness
A lapse in attention that results in memory failure
Prospective memory
Remembering to do things in the future
Blocking
Failure to retrieve information that is available in memory even though you are trying to produce it
Memory misattribution
Assigning a recollection or an idea to the wrong source
Source memory
Recall of when/where/ how information was acquired
False recognition
Feeling of familiarity about something that hasn't been encountered before
Suggestibility
Tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections
Bias
Distorting influences of present knowledge, beliefs, and feelings on recollections of previous experiences
Persistence
The intrusive recollection of events we wish we could forget
Flashbulb memories
Detailed recollections of when and where we heard about shocking events
Intelligence
The ability to direct one's thinking, adapt to one's circumstances, and learn from one's experiences
Ration IQ
A statistic obtained by dividing a person's mental age by their physical age and multiplying by 100
Deviation IQ
Statistic obtained by dividing a person's test score by the average test score of people in the same age group and then multiplying by 100
Factor analysis
A statistical technique that explains a large number of correlations in terms of a small number of underlying factors
Two-factor theory of intelligence
Everytask requires a combination of general ability and skills specific to the task
Fluid intelligence
The ability to see abstract relationships and draw logical inferences
Emotional intelligence
The ability to reason about emotions and use emotions to enhance reasoning
Shared environment
Those environmental factors that are experience by all relevant members of a household
Nonshared environment
Environmental factors that are not experienced by all relevant members of a household
Binocular rivalry
Present 2 different images to each eye, see which one focuses on
Primacy effect
Remember things at beginning of a list better
Recency effect
Remember things at end of a list better
Intrusion error (Deese-Roediger-McDermott Paradox)
When you accidentally add something into a list of words
Benign Violation
Theory of humor that says things are funny because something seems wrong/threatens the way you view the world but there's something additional which make it distant (happens to someone else, long ago, unrealistic), not strongly committed to a social norm that's violated, alternative interpretation of the violation so that it is seen as ok (tickling/playfighting are mock attacks
Incongruity
Theory of humor that says things are funny because there is a difference between what we expect to happen and what actually happens
Superiority
Theory of humor that says mirth is explained because we realize we are better than the butt of the joke
Tension-Release
Theory of humor that says we laugh when something builds up tension then relieves it
Kin selection
organisms who help people who are genetically related to them, those genes will be passed on
Reciprocal altruism
People help out those who help them. People who cooperate with others are more likely to receive an advantage
Method of Loci
Associating things you want to remember with places to try to help you remember them
Crystallized intelligence
The ability to retain and use knowledge that was acquired through experience