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New ideas brought the Middle Ages to an end. Advances in arts and learning and dramatic changes to Christianity led to the beginning of modern times in Europe

The Renaissance was a time of rebirth for...

art and learning

What is a gondola?

Long, narrow boats used for transport in Venice.

When people became more secular they focus on the what?


What wealthy Italian city played an important role in the Renaissance.


How did Florence become wealthy?

They profited from trade

Streets in Venice are made of what?

canals and waterways

What is humanism and what did humanists want?

It was based on the values of the ancient Greeks and Romans. They believed that the individual and human society were important. They wanted a balance between faith and reason.

Who wrote The Prince

Niccolo Maccavelli

What is chiaroscuro?

technique using light and shadows to soften edges.

He wrote tragedies and comedies.

William Shakespeare

Oil painting was developed here.


He was an Italian scientist and artist.

Leonardo da Vinci

The Divine Comedy tells a story of what?

A trip from heaven to hell

How did the Renaissance affect England and English culture

It brought new art forms like oil painting. But the greatest change was in writing and the theater.

Who outlawed freedom of religion in France?

Catherine de Medici

Who developed the printing press?

Johannes Gutenberg

What is predestination?

a belief that the outcome of people's lives are planned in advance by God

The study of questions about God is called...


Who taught that God decides who goes to heaven?

John Calvin

He wanted all people to be able to read the Bible.

Desiderius Eramus

This Queen tried to make England a Catholic country.

Queen Mary I

Ignatius of Loyola founded what group?

The Jesuits

What was Counter-Reformation?

The Catholic attempt to convince people to return to the Catholic church.

How many Spaniards were executed during the Spanish Inquisition?


The marriage of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella did what?

It united Spain.

King Henry VIII behead how many of his wives?

Two of his six wives were beheaded

What did the Puritans want?

They wanted to purify the Anglican Church

Henry IV of France did what so he could become king?

He converted to Catholicism.

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