"But much of the time, introspection leads to inaccurate conclusions about the self simply because we don't have access to certain mental processes, such as those that lead us to prefer, say, objects placed in the rightmost position of an array or that we've seen last
Such mental processes are noncon- scious, occurring outside of our awareness, leaving us to generate alternative, plausible accounts for our preferences and behaviors instead."
"Vazire and her col- leagues argue that there are certain aspects of a person that are uniquely known to the self and certain aspects that are uniquely known to others"
Because we have greater information than others do about our inner states (such as our thoughts and feelings), we are better judges of our internal traits (being optimistic or pessimistic, for instance). Other people, though, have better information for judging our external traits, by observing our overt behavior, such as being boisterous or outspoken."
Aspects, or content, of a persuasive message, including the quality of the evidence and the explicitness of its conclusions
- message quality -
Messages are of higher quality when they appeal to the core values of the audience; when they are straightforward, clear, and logical; and when they convey the desirable consequences of taking the actions suggested by the message. It is also better when the direction of the argument is in contrary to obvious self-interest.
- vividness -
vivid - colorful, interesting, and memorable information tends to be more effective.
- identifiable victim effect -
tendency to be more moved by the vivid plight of a single individual than by a more abstract number of people -> the story of Ryan white,a 13 yr old who died of AIDs, was powerful enough to start a large set of services.
-"Recognizable victims are more apt to elicit feelings of empathy,"
- fear -
the right kind of fear might heighten people's motivation to attend to the message, thus increasing the likelihood of enduring attitude change
-"Fear, especially when paired with instruc- tions on how to respond to the fear, is likely to lead to attitude change."
- culture -
Important to tailor a message to fit the norms, values, and outlook of a particular cultural group. Independent and interdependent cultures often differ substanstially in message content.
"Whereas Westerners are more likely to approach goals with a promotion orientation, focusing on the positive outcomes they hope to achieve, East Asians are more inclined to approach their goals with a prevention orientation, focusing on the negative outcomes they hope to avoid (Lee, Aaker, & Gardner, 2000). These differences have direct implications for how best to frame a persuasive appeal aimed at a Western and an East Asian audience—namely, what one stands to gain versus what one stands to lose"
- we seek out and pay disproportionate attention to information that supports our attitudes
- we selectively evaluate the information we find, looking favorably on material that agrees with our point of view and critcally on information that contradicts it
- previous commitments-
-"Many persuasive messages fail because they can't overcome the target audience's previous commitments"
-"There's also evidence that public commitments make people resist attitude change."
- thought polarization hypothesis -
- the hypothesis that more extended thought about a particular issue tends to produce a more extreme, entrenched attitude
--the more we know something, the more extreme out views is and more stable
- knowledge and resistance -
-- the more stable our thoughts are with knowledge
- people with a great deal of knowledge are more resistant to persuasion; their beliefs and habits (and sometimes emotions) are tied up with their attitudes, and thus their point of view thends to be fix
- attitude inoculation
- small attack on people's beliefs that engage their preexisting attitudes, prior commitments, and background knowledge, enabling them to counteract a subsequent larger attack and thus resist persuasion
-create attitudes in mind before the behavior takes place to influence behavior through prior attitude (pre-existing attitudes for molding people's behavior)
----- innoculates you with this before you even come into contact with this
---- inoculating you before you even come into contact with smoking
----- what are my arguments for smoking to know what to do later on
-- changes in attitude certainty-
- if people feel they're able to combat the message effectively, generating convincing counter-arguments, their original view may become more entrenched
-when people don't feel they have good arguments against a persuasive message, their confidence in their prior attitude may weaken
- impression management
•Process through which we try to control how others see
us (through words, nonverbal behavior, actions, etc.)
- Goffman's dramaturgical perspective
•Much of social interaction can be thought of as a play, with
actors, performances, settings, scripts, props, roles, etc.
•Self-promotion: trying to convey an impression of competence •Ingratiation: trying to convey the impression that we're
•Self-handicapping: trying to have excuses ready in case we fail
(behavioral and self-reported)